Balaton Limnological Research Institute

Tihany, Hungary

Balaton Limnological Research Institute

Tihany, Hungary
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Kiss T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Invertebrate Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Having been investigated for over 40 years, some aspects of the biology of terrestrial gastropod’s olfactory system have been challenging and highly contentious, while others still remain unresolved. For example, a number of terrestrial gastropod species can track the odor of food, while others have no strong preferences toward food odor; rather they find it by random encounter. Here, while assessing the most recent findings and comparing them with earlier studies, the aspects of the food selection based on olfactory cues are examined critically to highlight the speculations and controversies that have arisen. We analyzed and compared the potential role of airborne odors in the feeding behavior of several terrestrial gastropod species. The available results indicate that in the foraging of most of the terrestrial gastropod species odor cues contribute substantially to food finding and selection. The results also suggest, however, that what they will actually consume largely depends on where they live and the species of gastropod that they are. Due to the voluminous literature relevant to this object, this review is not intended to be exhaustive. Instead, I selected what I consider to be the most important or critical in studies regarding the role of the olfaction in feeding of terrestrial gastropods. © 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.


Schmera D.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Community Ecology | Year: 2017

Although overlap of communities is a key issue in studies ranging from community ecology to biogeography, a clear definition of community overlap and related terms hinder the development of the field. The absence of a unified terminology is remarkable even when the overlap of a pair or multiple communities is characterized. As a remedy, I suggest a definition of community overlap and two measures of it (number of overlapping species and total overlap size). Although both measures quantify different aspects of community overlap, in studying pairs of communities they yield identical results. The present findings demonstrate the need for a unified terminology in research on community overlap as well as for pairwise and multiple measures for quantifying the phenomenon. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


Eros T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Community Ecology | Year: 2017

The metacommunity perspective has substantially advanced our understanding of how local (within community) and dispersal (between community) processes influence the assembly of communities. The increased recognition of dispersal processes makes it necessary to re-evaluate former views on community organization in different ecological systems and for specific organisms. Stream systems have long been considered from a linear perspective, in which local community organization was examined along the longitudinal profile, from source to mouth. However, the hierarchically branching (i.e. dendritic) structure of stream networks also significantly affects both local and regional scale community organization, which has just only recently been fully recognized by ecologists. In this review, I examine how the shift from a strictly linear to a dendritic network perspective influenced the thinking about the organization of fish metacommunities in stream networks. I argue that while longitudinal patterns in the structure of fish communities are relatively well known, knowledge is still limited about how the structure of the stream network ultimately affects the spatial and temporal dynamics of metacommunities. I suggest that scaling metapopulation models up to the metacommunity level can be useful to further our understanding of the spatial structure of metacommunities. However, this requires the delineation of local communities and the quantification of the contribution of dispersal to local community dynamics. Exploring patterns in diversity, spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of metacommunities is not easily feasible in continuous stream habitats, where some parts of the habitat network are exceptionally hard to sample representatively. Combination of detailed field studies with modelling of dispersal is necessary for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics in stream networks. Since most metacommunity level processes are likely to happen at the stream network level, further research on the effects of stream network structure is needed. Overall, separation of the effect of dispersal processes from local scale community dynamics may yield a more mechanistic understanding of the assembly of fish communities in stream networks, which may also enhance the effectiveness of restoration efforts. © Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


Podani J.,A.P.S. University | Schmera D.,University of Basel | Schmera D.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Oikos | Year: 2011

A conceptual framework is proposed to evaluate the relative importance of beta diversity, nestedness and agreement in species richness in presence - absence data matrices via partitioning pairwise gamma diversity into additive components. This is achieved by calculating three complementary indices that measure similarity, relative species replacement, and relative richness difference for all pairs of sites, and by displaying the results in a two-dimensional simplex diagram, or ternary plot. By summing two terms at a time, three one-dimensional simplices are derived correspondig to different contrasts: beta diversity versus similarity, species replacement versus nestedness and, finally, richness difference versus richness agreement. The simplex diagrams can be used to interpret underlying data structures by showing departure from randomness towards well-interpretable directions, as demonstrated by artificial and actual examples. In particular, one may appreciate how far data structure deviates from three extreme model situations: perfect nestedness, anti-nestedness and perfect gradient. Throughout the paper, we pay special attention to the measurement and interpetation of beta diversity and nestedness for pairs of sites, because these concepts have been in focus of ecological reseach for decades. The novel method can be used in community ecology, conservation biology, and biogeography, whenever the objective is to recover explanatory ecological processes behind patterns conveyed by presence-absence data. © 2011 The Authors.


Eros T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute | Campbell Grant E.H.,U.S. Geological Survey
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2015

While there is an increasing emphasis in terrestrial ecology on determining the influence of the area that surrounds habitat patches (the landscape 'matrix') relative to the characteristics of the patches themselves, research on these aspects in running waters is still rather underrepresented. Here we outline conceptual foundations of matrix ecology for stream and river ecosystems ('riverscapes'). We discuss how a hierarchical, patch-based perspective is necessary for the delineation of habitat patches and the surrounding matrix, through which we may identify two classes of habitat edges in riverscapes (i.e. edges between the terrestrial-aquatic interface and edges within streams). Under this conceptual framework, we discuss the role of the matrix in influencing between-patch movement, and resource quality and quantity within and among habitat patches in riverscapes. We also review types of empirical and modelling approaches which may advance our understanding of fragmentation effects in these systems. We identify five key challenges for understanding fragmentation and matrix effects more completely: (i) defining populations and their status (i.e. quantifying the demographic contribution of habitat patches to metapopulation dynamics), (ii) scaling from metapopulations to metacommunities (particularly searching for generalities in species responses to landscape heterogeneity), (iii) scaling from metacommunities to metaecosystems (i.e. exploring the interactive role of the terrestrial-aquatic and within-stream matrix effects on the flow of material and energy at the network scale), (iv) understanding temporal dynamics in matrix permeability and (v) revealing the utility of different patch and matrix representations for modelling connectivity relationships. Fragmentation of habitats is a critical issue in the conservation and management of stream networks across spatial scales. Although the effects of individual barriers (e.g. dams) are well documented, we argue that a more comprehensive patch-matrix landscape model will improve our understanding of fragmentation effects and improve management in riverscapes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Podani J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Schmera D.,University of Basel | Schmera D.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Ecography | Year: 2012

This paper deals with nestedness measures that are based on pairwise comparisons of sites, evaluates their performance and suggests improvements and generalizations. There are several conceptual and technical criteria to judge their ecological applicability. It is of primary concern whether the measures 1) have a clear mathematical definition, 2) are influenced by the ordering of the data matrix, 3) incorporate similarity alone or similarity together with a dissimilarity component, 4) consider site pairs with identical species number negatively or positively, 5) show sensitivity to small changes in the data, and 6) are not vulnerable to type I and type II error rates. We performed a detailed comparison of the nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill (NODF), the percentage relativized nestedness and the percentage relativized strict nestedness functions (PRN and PRSN, respectively), based on analytical results as well as on artificial and actual examples. We show that NODF is in fact the average Simpson similarity of sites with different species totals, and that its value depends on how the matrix is actually ordered. NODF is modified to always produce the maximum possible result (NODF max), independently of the order of columns and rows. Being based on similarities, NODF and NODF max overemphasize the overlap component of nestedness and underrate richness difference which is also an important constituent of nested pattern in meta-community data. This latter feature is reflected adequately by PRN and PRSN. However, PRSN is similar to NODF and NODF max in sharing the disadvantages that 1) complete agreement and segregation in species composition are not distinguished, 2) a random matrix can have a higher value than truly nested patterns, and 3) they are ill-conditioned statistically. These problems are rooted mostly in that site pairs with tied totals affect the result negatively. We emphasize that PRN is free from these difficulties. PRN, PRSN, and NODF max, together with mean Simpson similarity exhibit highly similar statistical performance: they are resistant to type I and type II errors for the less constrained null models, although there are subtle differences depending on matrix fill and algorithm of randomization. The most constrained null model, with all marginal totals fixed, makes all statistics more sensitive to type I errors, although vulnerability depends greatly on matrix fill. © 2012 The Authors.


Kiss T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Neuropeptides, the most diverse group of signaling molecules, are responsible for regulating a variety of cellular and behavioral processes in all vertebrate and invertebrate animals. The role played by peptide signals in information processing is fundamentally different from that of conventional neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides may act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and are released at either synaptic or non-synaptic sites. Peptide signals control developmental processes, drive specific behaviors or contribute to the mechanisms of learning and memory storage. Co-transmission within or across peptide families, and between peptide and non-peptide signaling molecules, is common; this ensures the great versatility of their action. How these tasks are fulfilled when multiple neuropeptides are released has become an important topic for peptide research. Although our knowledge concerning the physiological and behavioral roles of most of the neuropeptides isolated from molluscs is incomplete, this article provides examples to address the complexity of peptide signaling. © 2011.


Prey size and species selection of pikeperch Sander lucioperca and Volga pikeperch Sander volgensis were investigated in relation to predator size in the shallow Lake Balaton, Hungary. Although their gape sizes were similar, S. lucioperca shifted to piscivory earlier and consumed fewer, but larger, prey than S. volgensis. Prey species preference of the two piscivores also differed. A bimodal prey size distribution resulted in a reclining sigmoid curve for the life span predator size to prey size relationship with inflexion points between 266 and 284 mm predator standard length (L S) in S. lucioperca. In S. volgensis, as well as in S. lucioperca L S≤ 350 mm, prey size increased monotonically with predator L S, following a power trend for all prey size variables. Prey depth to predator L S relationship varied significantly with prey species and prey number in both piscivores, and prey depth tended to be smaller in predators consuming more than one prey. Both predator species characteristically selected less active, benthic prey fishes in spite of their spiny fin rays, and small- and mid-sized predators selected for small prey. Relatively large prey were also eaten, however, especially by the smallest and largest S. lucioperca. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Hernadi L.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Acta biologica Hungarica | Year: 2012

The anatomy of three novel flexor muscles in the posterior tentacles of Helix pomatia is described. The muscles originate from the ventral side of the sensory pad and are anchored at different sites in the base of the tentacle stem. The muscles span the tentacle and always take the length of the stem which depends on the rate of tentacle protrusion indicating that the muscles are both contractile and extremely stretchable. The three anchoring points at the base of the stem determine three space axes along which the contraction of a muscle or the synchronous contraction of the muscles can move the tentacle in space.


Kiss T.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute
Apoptosis | Year: 2010

Programmed cell death leading to apoptosis is essential for normal development and homeostasis in plants and throughout the animal kingdom. Although there are differences in apoptotic mechanisms between lower animals and vertebrates, crucial biochemical components of the programmed cell death pathways remained remarkably conserved throughout evolution. Despite decades of studies on the neurobiology and development of mollusks, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms of apoptosis in this phylum. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize data obtained on mollusks so far, and to discuss the molecular mechanisms, the functional and ecological significance of apoptosis and the advantages of snail preparations as tools for programmed cell death research. A definitive comparison of the data obtained on mollusks with those obtained on the more widely studied vertebrates, will contribute to the better understanding of the apoptotic process in general and of its evolutionary development. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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