Bako Agricultural Research Center

Bako, Ethiopia

Bako Agricultural Research Center

Bako, Ethiopia
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Alemayehu S.,Bako ATVET College | Jembere T.,Bako agricultural research center | Duguma G.,Bako agricultural research center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

Birth (BWt), age corrected three (WWt), six (6MWt) and yearling (YWt) weights recorded during the last 34 years (1978 – 2011) were analyzed in the present study. Pre (Pre-ADG) and post (Post-ADG) weaning average daily gains were also analyzed. The objective was to investigate if the early growth traits showed variability over years, parities, sexes and type of births. Fixed effects of year, parity, sex of lambs and type of birth were fitted as class variables. The data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS. The overall means for BWt, WWt, 6MWt, YWt, Pre-ADG and Post-ADG were 2.6 kg, 11.7 kg, 15.5 kg, 25.7 kg, 90.9 g, and 50.7 g, respectively. All of the studied traits showed variability by year of birth. Post-ADG was the only trait that was not influenced by parity of ewes whereas type of birth affected all except YWt and Post-ADG. In general, the current results did not differ from earlier findings, though larger data size was used. In turn, it was verified that Horro sheep breed have high early growth potential. In conclusion, consideration of fixed factors of year, parity, type of birth and sex of lambs remain crucial while planning to exploit the genetic potential of the breed through selection. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Abebe Z.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Dabala C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Birhanu T.,Bako Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2017

Objective: Maize-legume intercropping is one of the best practices to avert mono cropping problems and ensure sustainable and diversified production systems. In recognition of this fact, the objective of the experiment was to identify compatible maize and climbing types of common bean varieties at appropriate time of bean planting in intercropping systems. Methodology: The experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 years at Bako and Billo Boshe sites. Three maize varieties (BH661, BH546 and Gibe 2), two climbing beans (Tibe and Dandessu) and bean temporal arrangements (same, 15 and 20 days after maize planting) were arranged in factorial combinations in randomized complete block design with three replications. Result: The highest significant maize yield (9 t haG1) was obtained when common bean was planted with BH661 simultaneously followed by 20 days after BH546 planting. Bean performance in BH546 was significantly decreased as the function of increasing from same date to 20 days after maize planting. Even though maximum bean yield could be obtained when intercropped with Gibe 2 at the same time, 31% yield reduction of the maize was observed. Maximum LER (1.53) was obtained when BH661 was planted simultaneously with beans. Positive value of agressivity index showed maize varieties, except Gibe 2 were the dominant. In contrast, climbing bean was significantly dominated by maize varieties except in simultaneous planting with Gibe 2. Conclusion: Simultaneous planting of climbing bean in BH661 maize variety is the best practices to get the highest net benefits. Alternatively, farmers could also prefer to use planting of the beans 15 days after BH546 variety of maize planted. Moreover, intercropping of bean after 20 or more days planting of Gibe 2 could be used to advise the farmers as other options where there are limited accesses to hybrid varieties. © 2017 Zerihun Abebe et al.


Jembere T.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Dessie T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Rischkowsky B.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Kebede K.,Haramaya University | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2017

A meta-analysis of 84 published reports on goats was conducted to calculate weighted and unweighted average direct heritability (ha 2), maternal genetic effect (hm 2), common environmental effect (c2), repeatability (R), genetic (rg) and phenotypic (rp) correlations for growth, reproduction and milk production traits. Weighted average ha 2, hm 2, and c2 for growth traits ranged from 0.03 to 0.45, 0.05 to 0.27, and 0.02 to 0.10, respectively. Weighted average ha 2 for reproduction and milk production traits ranged from 0.00 to 0.17 and 0.15 to 0.22, respectively. Weighted R for the growth, reproduction, and milk production traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.56, 0.06 to 0.13, and 0.50 to 0.61, respectively. Weighted averages of rp and rg among growth traits ranged from −0.06 to 0.84 and 0.01 to 0.98, respectively. Weighted average rp among milk production traits ranged from 0.18 to 0.94. In most cases average ha 2 and rg had higher observed standard deviations compared to the theoretical standard error. The present finding revealed that weighted average ha 2, hm 2, c2, R, and rg are more reliable for two reasons: estimates of ha 2 for some growth traits were more conservative than values from relatively higher number of records and the absence of significant effects of the tested fixed factors on some parameter estimates. However, studies on genetic parameter estimations are required for growth, reproduction, and milk traits in goats. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


The problems of low soil fertility resulting from continuous monocropping, crop residue removal and limited fertilizer use represent key challenges to produce surplus food for the ever increasing population of Ethiopia. However, the practices of crop rotation and integrated sources of fertilizer uses could potentially improve soil fertility and productivity. In 2012 and 2014, soybean with different trials consisting of two soybean varieties (Boshe and Ethio-ugozilavia), three levels of farm yard manure (FYM) (3, 6 and 9 t/ha) and three phosphorus levels (8, 16 and 24 kg P ha− 1) were combined in 2 × 3 × 3 factorial arrangements. Two soybean varieties receiving no fertilizer application followed by finger millet receiving a recommended rate (20 kg P/ha) were included. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2013 and 2015, finger millet was planted on each soybean plot as per previous treatment arrangements to evaluate the effect of the precursor crop (soybean) and integrated fertilizer application on yield performance of the subsequent finger millet. Soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus before planting and after crop harvest of soybean in each year showed treatment differences. Both precursor crop and fertilizer application had a positive effect on soil fertility status and, hence, improved the performance of the subsequent finger millet. On the other hand, since the rainfall amount and distribution were different in the 2012 and 2014 seasons, the response of soybean varieties to applied fertilizers was significantly affected, and the correlation between soybean yield and annual rainfall was strongly positive. Use of an early maturing soybean variety (Boshe) with the lowest rates of organic and inorganic fertilizers gave significantly higher yield in 2012 (short rainy season) compared with other treatment combinations. In the 2014 cropping season, however, ‘Ethio-ugozilavia’ showed greater yield performance with the combined application of 3 t FYM/ha and 1616 kg PP/ha followed by 3 t FYM and 88 kg P/ha. Hence, it is recommended to use the ‘Boshe’ variety under a short rainy season and under a low soil fertility status, while variety the ‘Ethio-ugozilavia’ can be used under good rainy and soil fertility management conditions. Considering residual effects, the use of the early maturing soybean variety as a precursor with 3 t FYM/ha and 8–16,816 kg P/ha during the short rainy season could enhance the yield of the subsequent finger millet. On the other hand, the use of the late maturing soybean variety as a precursor with higher organic fertilizer rates (6–9 t FYM/ha) resulted in a significant yield increase of the subsequent finger millet. The use of a late maturing variety of soybean with lower rates of organic manure resulted in a finger millet yield comparable to farmers’ practice, indicating that this option can be adopted by smallholder farmers who cannot produce sufficient organic manure. This study showed that planting of finger millet after a soybean precursor crop even without fertilizer application could give better yield and economic benefits as it saves 70–85% of chemical fertilizer costs compared to the farmers’ practice. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI.


Abebe Z.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Feyisa H.,Bako Agricultural Research Center
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2017

Despite the fact that maize productivity is relatively better than other major cereal crops, its current productivity is still far below its potential productivity. N rate and time of application are among the major abiotic factors limiting the productivity of the crop. Because of such gaps, the experiment was conducted at Bako Agricultural Research Center in 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons to determine optimum N rate and time of application. Four levels of N rates (46, 69, 92, and 115 N kg ha-1) and four levels (T1, T2, T3, and T4) of different time of N application were arranged in factorial combinations. Moreover, previously recommended N and the control were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In 2013, the highest significant biomass yield (21.2 tha-1) was obtained at 115 N kg ha-1 and T4 followed by 69 N kg ha-1 at T1 and T2 and 92 N kg ha-1 at T2. In contrast, the highest grain yield in 2013 was obtained at 92 N kg ha-1 at T2 followed by 115 N kg ha-1 at either T2 or T4 and 69 N kg ha-1 at either T1 or T3 application time. Interestingly, a significant yield increase by 37% was obtained when 92 N kg ha-1 at the time of T2 was applied compared to previous recommended 110 N kg ha-1 rate and time of application. In 2014, however, the highest yield was recorded when 92 N kg ha-1 at T1 was used. Application of 46 N kg ha-1 at T2 showed statistically similar yield performance when compared with previous N recommendation. The lowest yield was recorded from the control plot in both years. In 2013, the maximum net profit and acceptable marginal rate of return (MMR) were obtained when 92 N kg ha-1 at T2 was used for maize production during erratic and heavy rainfall distribution, particularly at a time of N application. However, the maximum net benefit (30743 ETB ha-1) and acceptable MRR could be obtained when 92 N kg ha-1 at T1 was used if the rainfall amount and distribution are relatively uniform. In conclusion, application of 92 N kg ha-1 at T1 (10-15 DAP and 35-40 DAP) is the best N rate and time of application in good rainy seasons and hence recommended for the end users. However, in the case of erratic and heavy rainy seasons, application of 92 N kg ha-1 at three times application regimes (1/3 N at 10-15 days after planting (DAP), 1/3 N at 35-40 DAP and 55-60 DAP) should be used to get maximum profit and acceptable MRR. © 2017 Zerihun Abebe and Hailu Feyisa.


Worku M.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Banziger M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Schulte auf'm Erley G.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Friesen D.,CIMMYT Ethiopia | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Development of more nitrogen (N) efficient maize (Zea mays L.) varieties capable of producing higher maize grain yields under conditions of low soil N supply could improve the livelihoods of smallholder subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who cultivate infertile soils and are unable to purchase fertilizer inputs due to lack of access or cash constraints. A previous study found that increased grain yield under N stress was associated with higher post-anthesis N uptake, grain production per unit N accumulation and N harvest index. This study examines the underlying physiological mechanisms as well as root morphological differences as they affect N efficiency.Sixteen hybrids with contrasting N-efficiency were evaluated under a range of soil N fertility levels at Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2003 and 2004 and Kiboko, Kenya, in 2003 for grain yield, harvest index, ears per plant, kernel number per ear, kernel weight, kernels per row, kernel row number and grain carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as well as anthesis-silking interval and indicators of photosynthetic efficiency during grain filling. Differences in root-system size (estimated by root electrical capacitance), root density and distribution (estimated by coring), and soil mineral N depletion were assessed between contrasting hybrids.There was considerable genetic variability in yield components and dry matter partitioning among the hybrids under all N conditions and a strong relationship between N efficiency and dry matter partitioning. Significant hybrid-by-environment interactions indicated that increasing harvest index under high-N conditions may not increase harvest index under low-N conditions. The N-efficient hybrids were characterized by a lower anthesis-silking interval, higher dry matter production during grain filling, higher kernel number and relatively higher grain C/N ratio under limited N supply compared with inefficient hybrids. These hybrids were also associated with stay-green characteristics in that they maintained more green leaves, and had lower leaf senescence and higher leaf chlorophyll content during and after flowering. This may imply a higher photoassimilate supply in the N-efficient hybrids during and after flowering under low-N conditions.Between two contrasting hybrids, an N-efficient hybrid had greater root-length density in, and depleted more mineral-N from the surface soil layer than an N-inefficient hybrid. Although there was significant variation between hybrids, total root-system size was not significantly related to N efficiency indicating that selection for improved performance under low-N did not increase total root-system size in tropical maize. Although this study found a relationship between root-length density, soil mineral N depletion and plant N efficiency, the effects were not sufficiently compelling to conclude that they are causative factors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Schulte auf'm Erley G.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Ambebe T.F.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Worku M.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Banziger M.,CIMMYT Kenya | Horst W.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

The selection process of nitrogen (N)-efficient cultivars during plant breeding could be simplified by a specification of secondary plant traits that are decisive for N efficiency. It was shown that leaf senescence under N deprivation of sixteen tropical maize cultivars in a short-term nutrient solution experiment was related to leaf senescence and grain yield under N deficiency (N efficiency) in field experiments. In this study we investigated if a quantification of leaf- and plant-N flows by 15N labelling can improve the evaluation of genotypic differences in leaf senescence in short-term experiments. Cultivars differed in leaf-N content prior to senescence; however, this appeared to have no significant impact on the development of leaf senescence. N import into senescing leaves was not related to total plant N uptake, but seems to have been regulated by leaf-inherent factors. Leaf N remaining in the leaf seems to have comprised inefficiently remobilized leaf N, at least during early senescence stages. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents at early senescence stages depended on additional factors to leaf-N content. Nevertheless, all parameters used to characterize leaf senescence were related to leaf senescence at anthesis in field experiments. However, only photosynthetic rate during late leaf senescence reflected cultivar differences in leaf senescence during reproductive growth and N efficiency in field experiments. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.


Merera C.,Hawassa University | Merera C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Sebsibe A.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

Yearling sheep from Highland (Arsi-Bale, H) and Lowland (Black Head Ogaden, L) areas of Ethiopia were used to determine effects and interactions of animal origin, feeding and lengths of rest and feeding on harvest measures. Ten sheep of each origin were rested for 1, 2 or 3d after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter with ad libitum availability of grass hay and water and an overnight fast preceding slaughter. Eighteen to 20 sheep of each origin were fed for 2, 4 or 6 weeks in length with ad libitum grass hay and a concentrate supplement at 220 g/day per animal. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between origin and the linear effect of feeding period length in average daily gain, with a much greater value for H-F2 compared with other treatments (209, 120, 125, 118, 90 and 113 g/day for H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Hot carcass weight increased linearly with increasing length of rest (P<0.05), with a tendency (P<0.09) for greater change for H vs L animals and the effect (P<0.05) of feeding vs rest (8.09, 8.34, 8.73, 7.88, 8.19, 8.02, 9.08, 8.54, 9.13, 8.17, 8.03 and 8.57 kg for H-Rl, H-R2, H-R3, L-Rl, L-R2, L-R3, H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Carcass pH or instrumental color did not change due to treatment. In conclusion, there is considerable opportunity to increase carcass weight of H by manipulating periods of rest after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter longer than 1 day. Moreover, 2 weeks of feeding H sheep markedly increased carcass weight. © GSP, India.


Mirkena T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Mirkena T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Mirkena T.,Hawassa University | Duguma G.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | And 7 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This review summarizes available information on genetics of adaptation in major livestock species focusing on small ruminants. Adaptation to humans and consequences of domestication on predator aversion, mechanisms of adaptation to available feed and water resources, severe climates and genetic evidence of disease tolerance or resistance have been presented. The latter focuses on gastrointestinal parasites and bacterial diseases. The resource allocation by the animal to production and fitness traits under both optimal and sub-optimal conditions has a genetic background. Such information would help in identifying the most appropriate and adapted genotypes capable of coping with the environmental challenges posed by the production systems or, wherever possible, in adapting the environments to the requirements of the animals. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Lule D.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Tesfaye K.,Addis Ababa University | Fetene M.,Addis Ababa University | de Villiers S.,Bako Agricultural Research Center
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The gradual change in climatic conditions, particularly rainfall distribution in tropical and sub tropical regions of the world necessitate looking for productivity enhancement of stress tolerant crops such as finger millet as one option. Assessing genetic variation is a crucial for varietal development and genetic resource conservation. To this regard, a study was conducted at Gute and Arsi Negele (Ethiopia) during 2011 cropping season on one hundred and forty four finger millet landraces collected from different regions of Ethiopia, some introduced from Kenya, Eritrea, Zambia and Zimbabwe to evaluate the genetic diversity for quantitative traits at population level and eco- geographical regions of origin. The trend of quantitative trait diversity revealed that the highest genetic diversity were observed at the lowest level (among landrace populations) followed among the regions or countries of origin and least among altitude classes. This leads to suggest, taking more samples within a locality or population would be a better approach to capture the range of variation in finger millet population. Cluster analysis indicated that finger millet populations from neighboring regions of Ethiopia, neighboring African countries and proximity in altitude classes shared strong similarity. The similarity could be either due to fact that farmer's selection criteria for a given traits might be similar particularly based on the adaptive role of traits for the environment, the primary seed source can be the same, or high tendency of seed exchange. Principal component analysis at populations level, geographical locations and agro-ecologies of origin indicated that grain yield per plant, thousand grain weight, days to heading, days to maturity, lodging index and biomass weight per plant were the most important traits contributing for the overall variability implying that breeding effort on those traits can meet the targeted objective. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

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