Bako Agricultural Research Center

Bako, Ethiopia

Bako Agricultural Research Center

Bako, Ethiopia
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Alemayehu S.,Bako ATVET College | Jembere T.,Bako agricultural research center | Duguma G.,Bako agricultural research center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

Birth (BWt), age corrected three (WWt), six (6MWt) and yearling (YWt) weights recorded during the last 34 years (1978 – 2011) were analyzed in the present study. Pre (Pre-ADG) and post (Post-ADG) weaning average daily gains were also analyzed. The objective was to investigate if the early growth traits showed variability over years, parities, sexes and type of births. Fixed effects of year, parity, sex of lambs and type of birth were fitted as class variables. The data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS. The overall means for BWt, WWt, 6MWt, YWt, Pre-ADG and Post-ADG were 2.6 kg, 11.7 kg, 15.5 kg, 25.7 kg, 90.9 g, and 50.7 g, respectively. All of the studied traits showed variability by year of birth. Post-ADG was the only trait that was not influenced by parity of ewes whereas type of birth affected all except YWt and Post-ADG. In general, the current results did not differ from earlier findings, though larger data size was used. In turn, it was verified that Horro sheep breed have high early growth potential. In conclusion, consideration of fixed factors of year, parity, type of birth and sex of lambs remain crucial while planning to exploit the genetic potential of the breed through selection. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Abebe Z.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Dabala C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Birhanu T.,Bako Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2017

Objective: Maize-legume intercropping is one of the best practices to avert mono cropping problems and ensure sustainable and diversified production systems. In recognition of this fact, the objective of the experiment was to identify compatible maize and climbing types of common bean varieties at appropriate time of bean planting in intercropping systems. Methodology: The experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 years at Bako and Billo Boshe sites. Three maize varieties (BH661, BH546 and Gibe 2), two climbing beans (Tibe and Dandessu) and bean temporal arrangements (same, 15 and 20 days after maize planting) were arranged in factorial combinations in randomized complete block design with three replications. Result: The highest significant maize yield (9 t haG1) was obtained when common bean was planted with BH661 simultaneously followed by 20 days after BH546 planting. Bean performance in BH546 was significantly decreased as the function of increasing from same date to 20 days after maize planting. Even though maximum bean yield could be obtained when intercropped with Gibe 2 at the same time, 31% yield reduction of the maize was observed. Maximum LER (1.53) was obtained when BH661 was planted simultaneously with beans. Positive value of agressivity index showed maize varieties, except Gibe 2 were the dominant. In contrast, climbing bean was significantly dominated by maize varieties except in simultaneous planting with Gibe 2. Conclusion: Simultaneous planting of climbing bean in BH661 maize variety is the best practices to get the highest net benefits. Alternatively, farmers could also prefer to use planting of the beans 15 days after BH546 variety of maize planted. Moreover, intercropping of bean after 20 or more days planting of Gibe 2 could be used to advise the farmers as other options where there are limited accesses to hybrid varieties. © 2017 Zerihun Abebe et al.


Worku M.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Banziger M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Schulte auf'm Erley G.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Friesen D.,CIMMYT Ethiopia | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Development of more nitrogen (N) efficient maize (Zea mays L.) varieties capable of producing higher maize grain yields under conditions of low soil N supply could improve the livelihoods of smallholder subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who cultivate infertile soils and are unable to purchase fertilizer inputs due to lack of access or cash constraints. A previous study found that increased grain yield under N stress was associated with higher post-anthesis N uptake, grain production per unit N accumulation and N harvest index. This study examines the underlying physiological mechanisms as well as root morphological differences as they affect N efficiency.Sixteen hybrids with contrasting N-efficiency were evaluated under a range of soil N fertility levels at Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2003 and 2004 and Kiboko, Kenya, in 2003 for grain yield, harvest index, ears per plant, kernel number per ear, kernel weight, kernels per row, kernel row number and grain carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as well as anthesis-silking interval and indicators of photosynthetic efficiency during grain filling. Differences in root-system size (estimated by root electrical capacitance), root density and distribution (estimated by coring), and soil mineral N depletion were assessed between contrasting hybrids.There was considerable genetic variability in yield components and dry matter partitioning among the hybrids under all N conditions and a strong relationship between N efficiency and dry matter partitioning. Significant hybrid-by-environment interactions indicated that increasing harvest index under high-N conditions may not increase harvest index under low-N conditions. The N-efficient hybrids were characterized by a lower anthesis-silking interval, higher dry matter production during grain filling, higher kernel number and relatively higher grain C/N ratio under limited N supply compared with inefficient hybrids. These hybrids were also associated with stay-green characteristics in that they maintained more green leaves, and had lower leaf senescence and higher leaf chlorophyll content during and after flowering. This may imply a higher photoassimilate supply in the N-efficient hybrids during and after flowering under low-N conditions.Between two contrasting hybrids, an N-efficient hybrid had greater root-length density in, and depleted more mineral-N from the surface soil layer than an N-inefficient hybrid. Although there was significant variation between hybrids, total root-system size was not significantly related to N efficiency indicating that selection for improved performance under low-N did not increase total root-system size in tropical maize. Although this study found a relationship between root-length density, soil mineral N depletion and plant N efficiency, the effects were not sufficiently compelling to conclude that they are causative factors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Schulte auf'm Erley G.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Ambebe T.F.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Worku M.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Banziger M.,CIMMYT Kenya | Horst W.J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

The selection process of nitrogen (N)-efficient cultivars during plant breeding could be simplified by a specification of secondary plant traits that are decisive for N efficiency. It was shown that leaf senescence under N deprivation of sixteen tropical maize cultivars in a short-term nutrient solution experiment was related to leaf senescence and grain yield under N deficiency (N efficiency) in field experiments. In this study we investigated if a quantification of leaf- and plant-N flows by 15N labelling can improve the evaluation of genotypic differences in leaf senescence in short-term experiments. Cultivars differed in leaf-N content prior to senescence; however, this appeared to have no significant impact on the development of leaf senescence. N import into senescing leaves was not related to total plant N uptake, but seems to have been regulated by leaf-inherent factors. Leaf N remaining in the leaf seems to have comprised inefficiently remobilized leaf N, at least during early senescence stages. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents at early senescence stages depended on additional factors to leaf-N content. Nevertheless, all parameters used to characterize leaf senescence were related to leaf senescence at anthesis in field experiments. However, only photosynthetic rate during late leaf senescence reflected cultivar differences in leaf senescence during reproductive growth and N efficiency in field experiments. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.


Mirkena T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Mirkena T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Mirkena T.,Hawassa University | Duguma G.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2012

Based on the results of participatory approaches to define traits in the breeding objectives, four scenarios of ram selection and ram use were compared via deterministic modelling of breeding plans for community-based sheep breeding programmes in four diverse agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. The regions (and production systems) were Afar (pastoral/agro-pastoral), Bonga and Horro (both mixed crop-livestock) and Menz (sheep-barley). The schemes or scenarios differed in terms of selection intensity and duration of ram use. The predicted genetic gains per year in yearling weight (kilograms) were comparable across the schemes but differed among the breeds and ranged from 0.399 to 0.440 in Afar, 0.813 to 0.894 in Bonga, 0.850 to 0.940 in Horro, and 0.616 to 0.699 in Menz. The genetic gains per year in number of lambs born per ewe bred ranged from 0.009 to 0.010 in both Bonga and Horro. The predicted genetic gain in the proportion of lambs weaned per ewe joined was nearly comparable in all breeds ranging from 0.008 to 0.011. The genetic gain per year in milk yield of Afar breed was in the order of 0.018 to 0.020kg, while the genetic gain per generation for greasy fleece weight (kg) ranged from 0.016 to 0.024 in Menz. Generally, strong selection and shorter duration of ram use for breeding were the preferred options. The expected genetic gains are satisfactory but largely rely on accurate and continuous pedigree and performance recording. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Merera C.,Hawassa University | Merera C.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Abebe G.,Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program | Sebsibe A.,Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Technology Institute | Goetsch A.L.,Langston University
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

Yearling sheep from Highland (Arsi-Bale, H) and Lowland (Black Head Ogaden, L) areas of Ethiopia were used to determine effects and interactions of animal origin, feeding and lengths of rest and feeding on harvest measures. Ten sheep of each origin were rested for 1, 2 or 3d after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter with ad libitum availability of grass hay and water and an overnight fast preceding slaughter. Eighteen to 20 sheep of each origin were fed for 2, 4 or 6 weeks in length with ad libitum grass hay and a concentrate supplement at 220 g/day per animal. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between origin and the linear effect of feeding period length in average daily gain, with a much greater value for H-F2 compared with other treatments (209, 120, 125, 118, 90 and 113 g/day for H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Hot carcass weight increased linearly with increasing length of rest (P<0.05), with a tendency (P<0.09) for greater change for H vs L animals and the effect (P<0.05) of feeding vs rest (8.09, 8.34, 8.73, 7.88, 8.19, 8.02, 9.08, 8.54, 9.13, 8.17, 8.03 and 8.57 kg for H-Rl, H-R2, H-R3, L-Rl, L-R2, L-R3, H-F2, H-F4, H-F6, L-F2, L-F4 and L-F6, respectively). Carcass pH or instrumental color did not change due to treatment. In conclusion, there is considerable opportunity to increase carcass weight of H by manipulating periods of rest after arrival at the abattoir and before slaughter longer than 1 day. Moreover, 2 weeks of feeding H sheep markedly increased carcass weight. © GSP, India.


Mirkena T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Mirkena T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Mirkena T.,Hawassa University | Duguma G.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | And 7 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This review summarizes available information on genetics of adaptation in major livestock species focusing on small ruminants. Adaptation to humans and consequences of domestication on predator aversion, mechanisms of adaptation to available feed and water resources, severe climates and genetic evidence of disease tolerance or resistance have been presented. The latter focuses on gastrointestinal parasites and bacterial diseases. The resource allocation by the animal to production and fitness traits under both optimal and sub-optimal conditions has a genetic background. Such information would help in identifying the most appropriate and adapted genotypes capable of coping with the environmental challenges posed by the production systems or, wherever possible, in adapting the environments to the requirements of the animals. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Akassa B.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Belew D.,Jimma University | Debela A.,Jimma University
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to determine the effect of inter and intra row spacing on potato (Solarium tuberosum L.) seed and ware tuber emergence and subsequent growth in 2011/12 production season. The experiment was laid out in a 6×3 factorial combination arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications (Six levels of inter: 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 and 85 cm and three levels of intra row spacings: 20, 30 and 40 cm). Most of the variables collected in this experiment were significantly affected by inter, intra and/or their interactions except the number of main stem which did not show any change as the result to change of these treatments. Though most of the variables considered require wider spacing, it was observed that an indefinite increase in the space between plants and rows did not result to an increase in any of the variables apart from extending days to flowering and maturity. For the optimum emergence and successful growth of potato tubers for both seed and ware, spacing of 70-75 and 20-30 cm between plants and rows, respectively were identified as the best combination to be used in the study area. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Akassa B.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Belew D.,Jimma University | Debela A.,Jimma University
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted at Bako Agricultural Research Centre in the production season of 2011/12 with the purpose of identifying the best combination of inter and intra row spacings for the optimum production of potato (Solani{dotless}mi{dotless} tuberosum L.) seed tuber with marketable size and good flour quality. Six levels of inter (60, 65, 70, 75, 80 and 85 cm) and three levels of intra row spacings (20, 30 and 40 cm) were used in 6x3 factorial combination arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Most of the observed variables were significantly affected due to the variation in the treatment combination between inter and intra row spacings. Narrow spacings shifted seed tuber distribution from larger to the smaller and undesirable tubers considered from marketable point of view. Though, total yield increased under narrower spacing conditions, marketable tubers are more promising for encouraging fanners to continually produce seed tubers. These therefore require relatively wider spacing to have more number of marketable size tubers. To achieve this, the study identified 70-75 cm inter and 20-30 cm intra row spacing as the best spacing combination for optimum yield and good quality potato seed tuber. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Lule D.,Bako Agricultural Research Center | Tesfaye K.,Addis Ababa University | Fetene M.,Addis Ababa University | de Villiers S.,Bako Agricultural Research Center
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The gradual change in climatic conditions, particularly rainfall distribution in tropical and sub tropical regions of the world necessitate looking for productivity enhancement of stress tolerant crops such as finger millet as one option. Assessing genetic variation is a crucial for varietal development and genetic resource conservation. To this regard, a study was conducted at Gute and Arsi Negele (Ethiopia) during 2011 cropping season on one hundred and forty four finger millet landraces collected from different regions of Ethiopia, some introduced from Kenya, Eritrea, Zambia and Zimbabwe to evaluate the genetic diversity for quantitative traits at population level and eco- geographical regions of origin. The trend of quantitative trait diversity revealed that the highest genetic diversity were observed at the lowest level (among landrace populations) followed among the regions or countries of origin and least among altitude classes. This leads to suggest, taking more samples within a locality or population would be a better approach to capture the range of variation in finger millet population. Cluster analysis indicated that finger millet populations from neighboring regions of Ethiopia, neighboring African countries and proximity in altitude classes shared strong similarity. The similarity could be either due to fact that farmer's selection criteria for a given traits might be similar particularly based on the adaptive role of traits for the environment, the primary seed source can be the same, or high tendency of seed exchange. Principal component analysis at populations level, geographical locations and agro-ecologies of origin indicated that grain yield per plant, thousand grain weight, days to heading, days to maturity, lodging index and biomass weight per plant were the most important traits contributing for the overall variability implying that breeding effort on those traits can meet the targeted objective. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

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