Thomson R.L.,University of South Australia |
Brinkworth G.D.,CSIRO |
Noakes M.,CSIRO |
Clifton P.M.,Baker IDI |
And 2 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012
Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present with vascular abnormalities, including elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction. There is limited evidence for the effect of lifestyle modification and weight loss on these markers. The aim of this study was to determine if 20 weeks of a high-protein energy-restricted diet with or without exercise in women with PCOS could improve endothelial function. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a subset of 50 overweight/obese women with PCOS (age: 30.3 ± 6.3 years; BMI: 36.5 ± 5.7 kg/m2) from a previous study. Participants were randomly assigned by computer generation to one of three 20-week interventions: diet only (DO; n 14, ∼6000 kJ/day), diet and aerobic exercise (DA; n 16, ∼6000 kJ/day and five walking sessions/week) and diet and combined aerobic-resistance exercise (DC; n 20, ∼6000 kJ/day, three walking and two strength sessions/week). At Weeks 0 and 20, weight, markers of endothelial function [vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)], insulin resistance and hormonal profile were assessed. Results All three treatments resulted in significant weight loss (DO 7.9 ± 1.2, DA 11.0 ± 1.6, DC 8.8 ± 1.1; P < 0.001 for time; P 0.6 time × treatment). sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and PAI-1 levels decreased with weight loss (P≤ 0.01), with no differences between treatments (P< 0.4). ADMA levels did not change significantly (P 0.06). Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and the free androgen index (FAI) and insulin resistance also improved (P < 0.001) with no differences between treatments (P< 0.2). Reductions in sVCAM-1 were correlated to reductions in testosterone (r 0.32, P 0.03) and FAI (r 0.33, P 0.02) as well as weight loss (r 0.44, P 0.002). Weight loss was also associated with reductions in sICAM-1 (r 0.37, P 0.008). Conclusions Exercise training provided no additional benefit to following a high-protein, hypocaloric diet on markers of endothelial function in overweight/obese women with PCOS.Clinical Trials Registration Number: ACTRN12606000198527. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.
Boersma Y.L.,University of Groningen |
Newman J.,CSIRO |
Adams T.E.,CSIRO |
Cowieson N.,Australian Synchrotron |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014
Although part of the coenzyme A pathway, vanin 1 (also known as pantetheinase) sits on the cell surface of many cell types as an ectoenzyme, catalyzing the breakdown of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, a strong reducing agent. Vanin 1 was initially discovered as a protein involved in the homing of leukocytes to the thymus. Numerous studies have shown that vanin 1 is involved in inflammation, and more recent studies have shown a key role in metabolic disease. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of human vanin 1 at 2.25 Å resolution is presented, which is the first reported structure from the vanin family, as well as a crystal structure of vanin 1 bound to a specific inhibitor. These structures illuminate how vanin 1 can mediate its biological roles by way of both enzymatic activity and protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, it sheds light on how the enzymatic activity is regulated by a novel allosteric mechanism at a domain interface. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.
Schierhout G.,Charles Darwin University |
Nagel T.,Charles Darwin University |
Si D.,University of Queensland |
Brown A.,Baker IDI |
Bailie R.,Charles Darwin University
International Journal of Mental Health Systems | Year: 2013
Background: Relatively little is known about how depression amongst people with chronic illness is identified and managed in diverse primary health care settings. We evaluated the role of complex physical needs in influencing current practice of depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescriptions during a 12-month period, among adults with Type 2 diabetes attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care health centres in Australia.Methods: We analysed clinical audit data from 44 health centres participating in a continuous quality improvement initiative, using previously reported standard sampling and data extraction protocols. Eligible patients were those with Type 2 diabetes with health centre attendance within the past 12 months. We compared current practice in depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescription between patients with different disease severity and co-morbidity. We used random effects multiple logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and for clustering by health centre.Results: Among the 1174 patients with diabetes included, median time since diagnosis was 7 years, 19% of patients had a co-existing diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease and 1/3 had renal disease. Some 70% of patients had HbAc1>7.0%; 65% had cholesterol >4.0 mmol1-1 and 64% had blood pressure>130/80 mmHg. Documentation of screening for depression and of diagnosed depression were low overall (5% and 6% respectively) and lower for patients with renal disease (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.31 and AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.75), and for those with poorly controlled disease (HbA1c>7.00 (AOR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.68 and AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30 to 84)). Screening for depression was lower for those on pharmaceutical treatment for glycaemic control compared to those not on such treatment. Antidepressant prescription was not associated with level of diabetes control or disease severity.Conclusions: Background levels of depression screening and documentation were low overall and significantly lower for patients with greater disease severity. Strategies to improve depression care for vulnerable populations are urgently required. An important first step in the Australian Indigenous primary care context is to identify and address barriers to the use of current clinical guidelines for depression screening and care. © 2013 Schierhout et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ward J.,Baker IDI |
Costello-Czok M.,Anwernekenhe National HIV Alliance |
Willis J.,University of Queensland |
Saunders M.,National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation |
Shannon C.,University of Queensland
AIDS Education and Prevention | Year: 2014
Indigenous people globally remain resilient yet vulnerable to the threats of HIV. Although Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples experience the worst health status of any identifable group in Australia, with a standardized morbidity rate three times that of non-Indigenous Australians, the Australian response to HIV has resulted in relatively low and stable rates of HIV infection among Australia’s Indigenous peoples. This paper examines the reasons for the success of HIV prevention efforts. These include early recognition by Indigenous peoples of the potential effect that HIV could have on their communities; the supply of health hardware (needle and syringe programs and condoms); the development and implementation of culturally-appropriate health promotion messages such as the internationally-recognized Condoman campaign; the inclusion of dedicated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sexual Health Workers in communities; and an inclusive policy and partnership approach. Furthermore, the efforts of peak Aboriginal health organizations including NACCHO and its member services and Indigenous programs in peak mainstream organizations like AFAO and its member organizations, have all contributed to prevention success. Efforts need to be maintained however to ensure an escalated epidemic does not occur, particularly among heterosexual people, especially women, and people who inject drugs. New ideas are required as we enter a new era of HIV prevention within the context of the new paradigm of treatment as prevention, and getting to zero new infections. © 2014 The Guilford Press.
Mannan H.R.,Monash University |
Stevenson C.E.,Deakin University |
Peeters A.,Baker IDI |
McNeil J.J.,Monash University
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013
Objectives: As population ages and treatment for cardiovascular disease improves the risk of all-cause mortality has become a more meaningful outcome. We develop all-cause mortality equations for predicting long term risk using cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The 24-year risk of all-cause mortality was evaluated using Cox model for participants aged 40-81. years at the 10th or 11th examination of the Framingham original cohort and the first examination of the offspring cohort-all of whom were free of major chronic diseases. Results: The predictors of all-cause mortality were age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL ratio and smoking status. Risk prediction improved significantly when intensity of smoking and time since quitting were included into smoking status. A reduced model based on non-laboratory risk factors also demonstrated good predictive performance. Conclusions: All-cause mortality risk equations incorporating cardiovascular risk factors provide an improved tool to quantify risk and guide prevention of mortality. There are great potentials for prevention of the CVD epidemic and for increased longevity with health, through improved life-styles and consequent lower levels of blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | University of South Australia, James Cook University, Baker IDI, Flinders University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of cardiology | Year: 2016
In Australia it has been suggested that heart valve surgery, particularly for rheumatic heart disease (RHD), should be consolidated in higher volume centres. International studies of cardiac surgery suggest large volume centres have superior outcomes. However the effect of site and surgeon case load on longer term outcomes for valve surgery has not been investigated.The Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons Cardiac Surgery Database was analysed. The adjusted association between both average annual site and surgeon case load on short term complications and short and long-term survival was determined.Outcomes associated with 20,116 valve procedures at 25 surgical sites and by 93 surgeons were analysed. Overall adjusted analysis showed increasing site and surgeon case load was associated with longer ventilation, less reoperation and more anticoagulant complications. Increasing surgeon case load was also associated with less acute kidney injury. Adjusted 30-day mortality was not associated with site or surgeon case load. There was no consistent relationship between increasing site case load and long term survival. The association between surgeon case load and outcome demonstrated poorer adjusted survival in the highest volume surgeon group.In this Australian study, the adjusted association between surgeon and site case load was not simple or consistent. Overall larger volume sites or surgeons did not have superior outcomes. Mandating a particular site case load level for valve surgery or a minimum number of procedures for individual surgeons, in an Australian context, cannot be supported by these findings.
Clark B.K.,University of Queensland |
Sugiyama T.,University of Queensland |
Healy G.N.,University of Queensland |
Salmon J.,Deakin University |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2010
Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Methods: Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥2 hours/day and ≥4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Results: Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥4 hours/day. Conclusions: Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Bernardi S.,Baker IDI |
Zauli G.,IRCCS Burlo Garofolo |
Tikellis C.,Baker IDI |
Candido R.,Diabetes Center 1 Triestina |
And 4 more authors.
Clinical Science | Year: 2012
TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] has recently been shown to ameliorate the natural history of DM (diabetes mellitus). It has not been determined yet whether systemic TRAIL delivery would prevent the metabolic abnormalities due to an HFD [HF (high-fat) diet]. For this purpose, 27 male C57bl6 mice aged 8 weeks were randomly fed on a standard diet, HFD or HFD + TRAIL for 12 weeks. TRAIL was delivered weekly by intraperitoneal injection. Body composition was evaluated; indirect calorimetry studies, GTT (glucose tolerance test) and ITT (insulin tolerance test) were performed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis, were measured. TRAIL treatment reduced significantly the increased adiposity associated with an HFD. Moreover, it reduced significantly hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia during a GTT and it improved significantly the peripheral response to insulin. TRAIL reversed the changes in substrate utilization induced by the HFD and ameliorated skeletal muscle non-esterified fatty acids oxidation rate. This was associated with a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines together with a modulation of adipose tissue gene expression and apoptosis. These findings shed light on the possible anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of TRAIL and open new therapeutic possibilities against obesity, systemic inflammation and T2DM (Type 2 DM). © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society.
Remond M.G.W.,James Cook University |
Wark E.K.,James Cook University |
Maguire G.P.,Baker IDI
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2013
Rheumatic heart disease is preventable but causes significant morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander populations. Screening echocardiography has the potential to detect early rheumatic heart disease thereby enabling timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt disease progression. However, a number of issues prevent echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease satisfying the Australian criteria for acceptable screening programs. Primarily, it is unclear what criteria should be used to define a positive screening result as questions remain regarding the significance, natural history and potential treatment of early and subclinical rheumatic heart disease. Furthermore, at present the delivery of secondary prophylaxis in Australia remains suboptimal such that the potential benefits of screening would be limited. Finally, the impact of echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease on local health services and the psychosocial health of patients and families are yet to be ascertained. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Angell B.J.,University of Sydney |
Muhunthan J.,University of Sydney |
Irving M.,University of Sydney |
Eades S.,Baker IDI |
Jan S.,University of Sydney
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Methods and Findings: A systematic review of the published literature was carried out. MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, ECONLIT, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched with terms to identify cost-effectiveness evaluations of interventions in Indigenous populations around the world. The WHO definition was followed in identifying Indigenous populations. 19 studies reporting on 27 interventions were included in the review. The majority of studies came from high-income nations with only two studies of interventions in low and middle-income nations. 22 of the 27 interventions included in the analysis were found to be cost-effective or cost-saving by the respective studies. There were only two studies that focused on Indigenous communities in urban areas, neither of which was found to be cost-effective. There was little attention paid to Indigenous conceptions of health in included studies. Of the 27 included studies, 23 were interventions that specifically targeted Indigenous populations. Outreach programs were shown to be consistently cost-effective.Conclusion: The comprehensive review found only a small number of studies examining the cost-effectiveness of interventions into Indigenous communities around the world. Given the persistent disparities in health outcomes faced by these populations and commitments from governments around the world to improving these outcomes, it is an area where the health economics and public health fields can play an important role in improving the health of millions of people.Background: Indigenous populations around the world have consistently been shown to bear a greater burden of disease, death and disability than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Despite this, little is known about what constitutes costeffective interventions in these groups. The objective of this paper was to assess the global cost-effectiveness literature in Indigenous health to identify characteristics of successful and unsuccessful interventions and highlight areas for further research. Copyright: © 2014 Angell et al.