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Hajek A.E.,Cornell University | Hurley B.P.,University of Pretoria | Garnas J.R.,University of Pretoria | Bush S.J.,University of Pretoria | And 3 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed. Classical biological control began to be used in the late 1800s and its use increased until, beginning in 1983, scientists began raising significant concerns and questions about nontarget and indirect effects that can be caused by these introductions. In recent years, similar issues have been raised about augmentative use of exotic natural enemies. Subsequently, international guidelines, national regulations and scientific methods being used for exotic natural enemies in biological control have changed to require appropriate specificity testing, risk assessment and regulatory oversight before exotic natural enemies can be released. National and international standards aimed at minimizing risk have increased awareness and promoted more careful consideration of the costs and benefits associated with biological control. The barriers to the implementation of classical and augmentative biological control with exotic natural enemies now are sometimes difficult and, as a consequence, the numbers of classical biological control programs and releases have decreased significantly. Based in part on this new, more careful approach, classical biological control programs more recently undertaken are increasingly aimed at controlling especially damaging invasive arthropod pests that otherwise cannot be controlled. We examine evidence for these revised procedures and regulations aimed at increasing success and minimizing risk. We also discuss limitations linked to the apparent paucity of post-introduction monitoring and inherent unpredictability of indirect effects. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source


Colmenarez Y.,Sao Paulo State University | Moore D.,Bakeham Lane | Polar P.,CABI Caribbean and Latin America | Vasquez C.,University Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado
Acarologia | Year: 2014

A survey to determine population trends and entomopathogenic fungi associated with the red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica, was conducted in Trinidad, Antigua, St. Kitts and Nevis and Dominica. RPM population density was evaluated by sampling a total of ten coconut palms per site in Antigua, St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, and Trinidad (Manzanilla and Icacos). Mites from the four islands were either surface sterilized or left unsterilized before being cultured on Tap Water Agar (TWA). A total of 318 fungal colonies were retrieved. A further 96 mites from Dominica were kept on sterile moist filter paper in a humidity chamber and a further 85 colonies were isolated. Based on morphological observations of all 403 isolates, a sample consisting of 32 colonies (8%) was sent for identification at CABI-UK. Of the 27 fungi positively identified, 15 isolates belonged to the genera Cladosporium, three to Simplicillium spp., and one to Penicillium. Other fungi genera with limited or no entomopathogenic potential included: Aspergillus, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis and Pithomyces. The results show a potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for population management of the red palm mite in the Caribbean region. © Colmenarez Y. et al. Source


Granados M.,University of Costa Rica | Castaneda-Ruiz R.F.,Institute Investigaciones Fundamentales En Agricultura Tropical Alejandro Of Humboldt Inifat | Castro O.,University of Costa Rica | Minter D.W.,Bakeham Lane | Kendrick B.,Mycologue
Mycotaxon | Year: 2014

Codinaea delicata sp. nov., a new microfungus (hyphomycete) collected on decaying leaves of an unidentified plant, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished by synnematous determinate conidiomata and monophialidic and polyphialidic conidiogenous cells that produce subreniform unicellular hyaline conidia with a single unbranched setula at each end. Codinaea dendroidea comb. nov. is proposed, and a key to synnematous Codinaea species is provided. © 2014. Mycotaxon, Ltd. Source


Castaneda-Ruiz R.F.,Institute Investigaciones Fundamentales En Agricultura Tropical Alejandro Of Humboldt Inifat | Granados M.M.,University of Costa Rica | Mardones M.,University of Costa Rica | Stadler M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | And 4 more authors.
Mycotaxon | Year: 2012

Ticosynnema carranzae gen. & sp. nov., a new microfungus collected on the twig of an unidentified plant, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished by synnematous determinate conidiomata, monoblastic integrated determinate conidiogenous cells, and solitary, 3-4-septate, oblong, cylindrical to vermiform, brown conidia that secede rhexolytically. © 2012. Mycotaxon, Ltd. Source

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