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Medinīpur, India

Madhu N.R.,Bajkul Milani Mahavidyalaya | Manna C.K.,Kalyani University
Endocrine Regulations | Year: 2010

Objective. This study was aimed to see the histophysiological changes of the pineal and adrenal glands under altered photoperiodic conditions due to the administration of melatonin in the male domestic pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin. Methods. Young adult male domestic pigeons were exposed to long photoperiod (LP; 20 hr light: 4 hr dark), short photoperiod (SP; 4 hr light: 20 hr dark) exogenous melatonin (MEL; 20 μg/100 g body weight/day) was adminstered for 60 days in the primary breeding and regressive phase. At the end of experiment, adrenal and pineal glands were quickly dissected and processed for histology, ultrastructure study, biochemical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Results. In the primary breeding phase, the number of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were increased in the adrenal gland in MEL-LP group, while lipid granules were also increased in the subcapsular zone. In MEL-SP treated group, however, the number of mitochondria decreased. Pinealocytes were increased in size and well-developed Golgi complexes were present near the cell nucleus after induction with MEL-LP treatment during the primary breeding phase. No remarkable changes were noticed in the number of mitochondria. In the regressive phase-I, the adrenocortical cytoplasm showed similar morphological features both in MEL-LP treatment and control groups. In pinealocytes, few rough endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets and moderate number of mitochondria were present. In MEL-SP treatment, increased number of mitochondria in the adrenocortical cells and decreased nuclear diameter of the pinealocytes were noticed. Few mitochondria were observed within the pinealocyte cytoplasm. Side chain cleavage enzyme (immunocytochemical) activity was increased in the subcapsular zone in MEL-LP treated group. Conclusions. The present data indicates that the changes in pineal and adrenocortical tissue histophysiology might be due to melatonin rhythm and light/dark regime which act as a modulator in the male domestic pigeon. Source

Ghosh K.,Vidyasagar University | Maity C.,Vidyasagar University | Adak A.,Vidyasagar University | Halder S.K.,Vidyasagar University | And 7 more authors.
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2014

Haria is a rice-based fermented beverage that is popular among tribal and low income people in lateritic West Bengal and East-Central India. The principal ingredient of this beverage is low grade boiled rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is mixed with a traditional starter, called bakhar, and fermented within a heat-sterilized earthen pot for 3-4 days. The main aim of this study was to investigate the ethnobotanical importance and traditional process of haria preparation. The method adopted for this study was based on interactive questionnaires and laboratory experiments. It was found that the pH decreased during the course of fermentation with increased titratable acidity of 1.42%. The alcohol content was 2-3% (v/v) in the consumable beverages. This documentation will be useful for further exploitation of haria as a health drink. Source

Parua Mondal S.,Bajkul Milani Mahavidyalaya | Debnath J.M.,Vidyasagar University | Ghosh D.,Vidyasagar University
Zoo Biology | Year: 2011

Activities of key testicular androgenic enzymes [Δ 5, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ 5, 3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD)], plasma levels of testosterone, and testicular gametogenic activities were studied in heat-exposed adult male toads during hibernating season for two consecutive years. Exposure of toads to an elevated environmental temperature for 14 and 21 days resulted in significant elevation of testicular Δ 5, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities, along with plasma levels of testosterone. Testicular gametogenic activity, by means of quantity of all stages of spermatogenic cycle, were elevated significantly at the same experimental schedule, but 7 days of heat exposure resulted in significant elevation only in stage IV. The results indicated that environmental temperature is an important modulator of breeding activities of male toads. It also demonstrated that testicular activities in seasonally breeding toads are probably not linked to hibernating cycle. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Ghosh K.,Vidyasagar University | Ray M.,Vidyasagar University | Adak A.,Vidyasagar University | Dey P.,Advanced Technology Development Center | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Haria, a popular rice based ethnic fermented beverage, is consumed as a staple food and refreshing drink by the vast number of Indian tribal people. In this study, the composition of microbial consortia and the occurrence of some important nutraceuticals during haria preparation were investigated. The quantities of moulds and yeasts were highest at 2nd day, and then declined, but, on the contrary, the quantity of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacterium sp. increased concurrently during the course of fermentation. Accumulation of starch hydrolytic enzymes along with different types of malto-oligosaccharides like maltotetrose (26.18 μg/gm), maltotriose (28.16 μg/gm), and maltose (26.94 μg/gm) were also noted. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated the occurrence of pyranose derivatives in the fermented products. The fermented materials showed higher free radicals scavenging activity (82.54%, 4th day) against DPPH radicals. These studies clearly demonstrated that the microbial interaction during fermentation of rice makes it more nutritious, and most likely more beneficial for health. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Madhu N.R.,Bajkul Milani Mahavidyalaya | Manna C.K.,Kalyani University
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2011

Young adult male domestic pigeons were exposed to artificial long photoperiod (LP, 200 watt; 20hr light, L: 4hr dark, D), short photoperiod (SP; 4L: 20 D) and administration of exogenous testosterone propionate (TP) at a daily dose of 1 mg/100g body weight for 60 consecutive days in primary breeding and regressive phases-I. Administration of TP in LP and SP during primary breeding phase decreased both the adrenal and pineal gland weight. In the TP-LP treatment during breeding phase, adreno-cortical cord width, nuclear diameter of sub-capsular zone (SCZ), central zone (CZ), and pinealocytes decreased significantly. Cholesterol, ascorbic acid level, and side-chain cleavage enzyme (SCC) within the CZ regions also decreased. Lipid granules increased in the SCZ but decreased in the CZ region, and alkaline and acid phosphatases levels increased significantly. Dark and broad cristae and numbers of mitochondria (mt) decreased within the adreno-cortical regions. But lipid droplets and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) increased. Large numbers of dark and dead mitochondria and less number of free ribosomes were also found within the pinealocytes cytoplasm. Whereas, in TP-SP treatment groups during breeding phase, weight of adrenal and pineal glands decreased. Alkaline and acid phophatases levels also decreased. But, cholesterol and ascorbic acid level and intensity of lipids droplets increased within the SCZ region. On the other hand, owing to TP-LP treatment during regressive phase-I, weight of adrenal gland, adreno-cortical cord widths, and nuclear diameter of SCZ and CZ regions increased significantly. High intensities of SCC enzymes were found in both the SCZ and CZ regions as well. Lipid droplets and rER decreased but mitochondria increased in the adreno-cortical region. Cholesterol and ascorbic acid level and intensity of lipids droplets in both the SCZ and CZ regions decreased. But alkaline and acid phophatases levels increased. And weight of pineal gland and its nuclear diameter decreased. Here, free ribosomes and the number of mitochondria decreased. In the TP-SP treatment groups, there is no major change within the adrenal gland, adrenocortical regions, and SCC enzymes. Intensity of lipids droplets increased within the CZ region. The nuclear diameters of pinealocytes were smaller than control. Cholesterol and ascorbic acid levels also decreased and alkaline and acid phophatases levels increased when compared to that in control. The number of mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and Golgi complex was the same as in control groups in both the adrenal and pineal glands. But mitochondria and rER increased in both the adrenal and pineal gland cytoplasm. The present studies on the male domestic pigeons clearly indicate that the activities of the adrenal and pineal glands during the regressive phases-I showed a clear relationship with the breeding birds. However, TP treatment in the birds during breeding phases showed some depressive results due to melatonin rhythm like the non-breeding or regressive phase of adult birds. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

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