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Gibson E.,University of Western Ontario | Gibson E.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Bauman G.S.,University of Western Ontario | Bauman G.S.,Lawson Health Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins may support focal boosting or treatment of PCa; however, these margins, accounting for interobserver and intertumoral variability, may preclude highly conformal CTVs. Multiparametric GTVs and anisotropic margins may reduce the required margins and improve prostate sparing. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gibson E.,Robarts Research Institute | Crukley C.,Robarts Research Institute | Crukley C.,Lawson Health Research Institute | Gaed M.,Robarts Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Purpose: To present and evaluate a method for registration of whole-mount prostate digital histology images to ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: Nine radical prostatectomy specimens were marked with 10 strand-shaped fiducial markers per specimen, imaged with T1- and T2-weighted 3T MRI protocols, sliced at 4.4-mm intervals, processed for whole-mount histology, and the resulting histological sections (3-5 per specimen, 34 in total) were digitized. The correspondence between fiducial markers on histology and MR images yielded an initial registration, which was refined by a local optimization technique, yielding the least-squares best-fit affine transformation between corresponding fiducial points on histology and MR images. Accuracy was quantified as the postregistration 3D distance between landmarks (3-7 per section, 184 in total) on histology and MR images, and compared to a previous state-of-the-art registration method. Results: The proposed method and previous method had mean (SD) target registration errors of 0.71 (0.38) mm and 1.21 (0.74) mm, respectively, requiring 3 and 11 hours of processing time, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method registers digital histology to prostate MR images, yielding 70% reduced processing time and mean accuracy sufficient to achieve 85% overlap on histology and ex vivo MR images for a 0.2 cc spherical tumor. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Mattonen S.A.,University of Western Ontario | Mattonen S.A.,Baines Imaging Research Laboratory | Palma D.A.,University of Western Ontario | Palma D.A.,Baines Imaging Research Laboratory | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics

Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for early-stage lung cancer. However, significant posttreatment fibrosis can occur and obfuscate the detection of local recurrence. The goal of this study was to assess physician ability to detect timely local recurrence and to compare physician performance with a radiomics tool. Methods and Materials: Posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans (n=182) from 45 patients treated with SABR (15 with local recurrence matched to 30 with no local recurrence) were used to measure physician and radiomic performance in assessing response. Scans were individually scored by 3 thoracic radiation oncologists and 3 thoracic radiologists, all of whom were blinded to clinical outcomes. Radiomic features were extracted from the same images. Performances of the physician assessors and the radiomics signature were compared. Results: When taking into account all CT scans during the whole follow-up period, median sensitivity for physician assessment of local recurrence was 83% (range, 67%-100%), and specificity was 75% (range, 67%-87%), with only moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.54) and a median time to detection of recurrence of 15.5 months. When determining the early prediction of recurrence within <6 months after SABR, physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury/no recurrence, with a mean error of 35%, false positive rate (FPR) of 1%, and false negative rate (FNR) of 99%. At the same time point, a radiomic signature consisting of 5 image-appearance features demonstrated excellent discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, classification error of 24%, FPR of 24%, and FNR of 23%. Conclusions: These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence that are not typically considered by physicians. This decision support system could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of patients with local recurrence after SABR. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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