Kayama Y.,Baika Womens University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012
The network view of cellular automata focuses on the effective relationships between cells rather than the states themselves. In this article, we review a network representation presented in previous papers and present network graphs derived from all independent rules of one-dimensional elementary cellular automata and totalistic five-neighbor cellular automata. Removal of the transient effects of initial configurations improves the visibility of the dynamical characteristics of each rule. Power-law distributions of lifetimes and sizes of avalanches caused by one-cell perturbations of an attractor are exhibited by the derived network of Rule 11 (or 52) of totalistic five-neighbor cellular automata. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Hirokawa K.,Baika Womens University |
Nagayoshi M.,Osaka University |
Ohira T.,Osaka University |
Ohira T.,Fukushima Medical University |
And 5 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that postmenopausal women demonstrate greater cardiovascular stress reactivity during mental stress tasks than do both premenopausal women and men. Methods: The study included 979 Japanese participants (338 men and 641 women [238 postmenopausal]) aged 16 to 82 years. Blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during a mirror drawing stress task and a maze task. Differences between measured variables during tasks and at rest were calculated and considered to represent reactivity to stress. Analyses were adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors. Results: After adjusting for multiple factors, significant group effects were found for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, low-frequency (LF), LF/high-frequency, and peripheral blood flow (effect size: partial G2 = 0.015, 0.011, 0.013, 0.013, 0.008, and 0.009, respectively). Postmenopausal women were more reactive than men to stress for SBP (15.4 ± 0.8 versus 11.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (10.4 ± 0.6 versus 8.0 ± 0.5 mm Hg), heart rate (2.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.7 ± 0.4 beats/min), LF (23.0 ± 5.2 versus 3.2 ± 3.8 ms2/Hz), and peripheral blood flow (-39.0 ± 3.8 versus -25.9 ± 2.8 Laser Doppler Perfusion Units) and more reactive than premenopausal women (p < .050) for SBP (15.4 ± 0.8 versus. 12.4 ± 0.5 mm Hg) and LF/ high-frequency (1.7 ± 0.1 versus 1.3 ± 0.1). Conclusions: Postmenopausal Japanese women evidenced greater cardiovascular stress reactivity during mental stress tasks than did Japanese men or premenopausal women. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity could play a role in the higher risks of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychosomatic Society.
Kayama Y.,Baika Womens University
IEEE SSCI 2011 - Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence - IEEE ALIFE 2011: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life | Year: 2011
Cellular automata have been used for modeling numerous complex processes and network theory provides powerful techniques for studying the structural properties of complex systems. In this article, we present a network representation of one-dimensional binary cellular automata and investigate their dynamical properties using the structural parameters of network theory. Specifically, networks derived from the independent rules of elementary cellular automata and 5-neighbor totalistic cellular automata are investigated. We found that the network parameters, efficiency, cluster coefficients, and degree distributions are all useful in classifying and characterizing cellular automata and that certain rules of the 5-neighbor totalistic cellular automata have networks of a scale-free nature. © 2011 IEEE.
Nagai M.,Baika Womens University |
Uyama O.,Sonoda Womens University |
Kaji H.,University of Hyogo
Health Education Journal | Year: 2013
Objective: To evaluate relations among dietary habits, bone mineral density (BMD), visceral fat area (VFA), and arterial stiffness and recommend better dietary habits. Methods: One hundred and six men and 381 women (aged 18-84) received a health checkup and answered questionnaires, with subsequent measurements of BMD (speed of sound), VFA (bioelectrical impedance), and arterial stiffness (acceleration plethysmography). Results: Snacking, intake of meat, fried foods, sweet foods, and instant foods were associated with higher BMD; regular lunch hours, skipping meals, calorie restriction, and eating moderate amounts were associated with lower BMD as indicated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Only skipping meals was an independent factor of high BMD. Age was an independent factor of low BMD, large VFA, and high arterial stiffness. Female sex was an independent factor of low BMD and VFA as indicated using multiple regression analysis. Conclusions and implications: BMD was associated with eating behaviours and food contents, among which only skipping meals was an independent contributor. © The Author(s) 2011.
Takaki J.,Mie University |
Taniguchi T.,Okayama Prefectural University |
Hirokawa K.,Baika Womens University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ≥ 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. The frequency of pain experienced by workers in the previous month was evaluated using a four-point scale. Many of the associations of person-related bullying, work-related bullying, and sexual harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints were positive and significant (p < 0.05). Even after adjustment for depression, some of the associations remained significant (p < 0.05). For example, changes in the prevalence ratio for headache associated with a 1-point increase in the work-related bullying score were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09) in men and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) in women after adjustment for age, marital status, employment status, work shift, and depression. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.