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Jia C.,Jiangnan University | Huang W.,Jiangnan University | Rayas-Duarte P.,Oklahoma State University | Zou Q.,BaihoBake Biotechnology International Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2014

The effects of thermostable ice structuring proteins (TSISPs) extracted from Chinese privet (Ligustrum vulgare) leaves on water molecular state, dehydration of gluten proteins, secondary structure of proteins, glutenin subunit of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) and rheological properties of gluten doughs during frozen storage were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared reflectance (ATR-FTIR), reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and dynamic rheometry. After frozen storage for 5 weeks, the control sample showed dehydration of gluten proteins and mobility of water molecules in gluten dough increased, significantly indicating ice formation and water redistribution. Secondary structure of gluten proteins changed significantly, α-helix decreased and β-sheet increased. Glutenin subunits depolymerized, indicated by the decrease in high molecular weight glutenins/low molecular weight-glutenins (HMW/LMW) ratio. The decrease in elastic moduli (G') and viscous moduli (G'') showed the deterioration of rheological properties of gluten dough. The addition of TSISPs inhibited the dehydration of gluten proteins, decrease in α-helix, increase in β-sheet and HMW/LMW ratio, resulting in improved rheological properties of gluten dough. © 2013. Source


Jia C.,Jiangnan University | Huang W.,Jiangnan University | Ji L.,Jiangnan University | Zhang L.,BaihoBake Biotechnology International Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The effects of frozen storage conditions and hydrocolloids (carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), locust bean gum (LBG) and xanthan gum (XG)) on angel food cake were investigated in terms of cake batter properties (viscosity, specific gravity, bubble size and uniformity and melting enthalpy of ice (δHm) and the characteristics of cake (specific volume and texture). Results showed that frozen storage caused a significant decrease in viscosity, a significant increase in δHm, specific gravity, bubble size and bubble non-uniformity, which resulted in the production of a denser and harder cake. Freeze-thaw cycle induced a more significant change than frozen storage for all above parameters of batter and cake. The addition of hydrocolloids retarded the change of viscosity, δHm, specific gravity, bubble size and bubble non-uniformity with frozen storage and freeze-thaw process, resulting in the improvement of the specific volume and textural properties of angel food cake. The biggest specific volume and smallest hardness belonged to cake containing 1% CMC in 4 weeks frozen storage or in 3 freeze-thaw cycles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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