Düsseldorf, Germany
Düsseldorf, Germany

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Rahse W.,Bahlenstrasse 168 | Dicoi O.,TU Dortmund
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2010

During the recovery and processing of materials from natural resources reactions between ground raw materials and fluid media take place. Starting materials are mineral and fossil substances, e.g., ore and coal, and renewable resources. In the physical model the particles shrink during the reaction. The design of the formed particles depends on the deposit, type and quantity of impurities, on further pre-treatments and the disperse properties of raw materials. Molten materials can be purified, doped and shaped. Otherwise, particles formed from powders, granular or fibrous materials show a completely different chemistry after the reaction, but largely kept size and shape of the starting material. Others disperse properties such as bulk density, density and flow properties, are changing by the reaction. For additional product design (cleaning, shaping) downstream processes are required.

Cosmeceuticals are complex formulated dermatological products, covering the region between care and cure. Such products, containing various ingredients in effective concentrations, ensure an optimal supply of stressed skin with moisture, lipids and vitamins. Special substances, e.g., for the reduction of skin aging, are important components of the formulation. Additives not promoting the health, like perfumes and dyes, are omitted. The emulsions, produced discontinuously in stirred vessels with rotor-stator emulsifiers, are filled preferably in hygienic dispensers, which allow a withdrawal without air access. Therefore, the products are formulated preservative-free or with small amounts of perservatives. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Materials for production plants must be corrosion resistant and mechanically stable. Additionally, the plant hygiene and product hygiene may represent key aspects, depending on the product. Typical materials for the equipment in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries are high-quality stainless steels as well as special metals, super alloys, non-metals and plastics. To avoid contaminations, the stainless steel equipment is polished on the product contact surfaces. Chemical resistant special materials are used as massive material or often applied on a steel base. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rahse W.,Bahlenstrasse 168
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2016

The economic analysis of processes allows a market orientation and prioritization of development projects. First of all, a preliminary costing takes place by estimating the investment costs. Basis for calculation is a complete process flow diagram with mass and energy balances for a layout of the process steps, performed in the standard material AISI 316Ti. Costs of other materials can be calculated with factors from a table, that of the other sizes and capacities by degression exponents. The preliminary costing is exemplified. The investment is the basis for the subsequent calculation of production costs. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Water soluble polymers in the detergent industry represent on the one hand parts of the formulations of washing powder to improve the washing result, and are used on the other hand as foils for the packaging of liquid detergent portions. Insoluble, thermoplastic polymers (PE, PP, PET) are needed as packaging materials for solids, pastes, suspensions and liquids in the form of laminated cardboard, boxes, bags, bottles, buckets and tubes. The polymers can be tailored to the application. For this purpose, not only the possibilities of the reaction and synthesis technology are available, but the addition of additives manages the adjustment of the required physical, technical and optical properties, such as color and durability. In an extrusion process, the plasticized or melted material gets the product shape; any form can be produced. The packaging should convince not only in forms and functions, but also throughout the aesthetics relating to the specific brand. The product design is the sum of these parameters. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fine powders produce dust, have low bulk densities and can be only handled poorly. Therefore, pressure agglomeration and build-up agglomeration for transferring dry powders into manageable agglomerates are wide-spread industrial methods. An agglomerate consists of many particles, interconnected by short material bridges. In case of press agglomeration, the highly viscous, plastic phases form the kit between the particles. However, the material bridges in the wet granulation arise from drying of the dissolved binder. The selection of suitable binders and the execution of scale-up relevant pilot tests as well as the industrial design of pressure agglomeration and granulation installations are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

To improve the competitiveness in the global market, innovative product ideas must rapidly be placed in the market. The innovator gets higher prices, gains market shares and benefits from the positive image. Development in half the time requires not only the support of top management, but also the immediate involvement of the customer. A core team, consisting of a product- and process developer, additionally a staff member of marketing, should lead the project. Time can be gained by competent, parallel processing of sub-projects, and by reducing the attempts for designing the machines and equipment. Crucial to the success are the communication within the team and with the leadership, and the absolute determination to bring a new product on the market. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Rahse W.,Bahlenstrasse 168
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2012

The high performance of modern laundry detergents at 30 - 60°C is only possible with specific enzymes and specially tuned enzyme mixtures. The various enzymes form complexes with the substrates (stains) and hydrolyze the fixed proteins, polysaccharides and fats. Surfactants rinse resulting fragments into the wash liquor. The enzymes are produced by appropriate microorganisms in fermenters with a size of 40 to 125 m3. The microorganisms secrete the enzyme into the medium. After the end of the fermentation, the enzymes are separated from the microorganisms, concentrated and converted into the final product. Here, the enzyme solution is used as granulation liquid. Product safety requires a special coating. The product design is determined by the protein engineering (performance) and the design (convenience) of the particle. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

In the last fifty years, powder and granular detergents have been significantly improved in performance and ecology: more concentrated (less chemicals), biodegradable surfactants, no phosphates, reduced water and energy consumption. The use of optimized enzymes and bleaching boosters enables lowered wash temperatures and the removal of natural stains. The production of solid detergents runs either in spray towers without and with compaction step, or in a non-tower agglomeration plant. The latest generation of granulation with an integrated mill for simultaneous drying and grinding allows the production of spherical particles, which can be adjusted (small or large, heavy or light). Future formulations will enable lower washing temperatures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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