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Bekele A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Firew A.,Bahirdar University
Ethiopian Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare even in endemic areas and it only accounts for 0.27% of all hydatid. cyst disease cases. It can either be a primary site or part of a disseminated hydatidosis. Surgery remains to be a treatment of choice. Only few reports are published in the literatures and most of the reported cases have been diagnosed postoperatively as it is not easy to reach at a definitive diagnosis with clinical examination and radiological investigations only. This is a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of breast in an 18-year old woman from the Amhara region, Ethiopia. She presented with left breast painless lump of 5 years duration and a correct pre-operative diagnosed was made by fine needle aspiration cytology, then confirmed after surgery. We believe this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign breast lumps especially in endemic areas. Source

Sharew G.,Bahirdar University | Ilako D.R.,University of Nairobi | Kimani K.,University of Nairobi | Gelaw Y.,Jimma University
Ethiopian Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Diabetic retinopathy accounts for 5% of global blindness and the incidence of diabetic blindness is increasing. Although the epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy has been well described in Western populations, there remains a paucity of prevalence data in many developing countries such as Ethiopia. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and associated risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A cross sectional hospital based study was done on a total of sampled 324 diabetic patients attending medical diabetic clinic at Jimma University Hospital from February to March 2009. Eye examination for diabetic retinopathy was carried out using slit lamp biomicroscope and 90D Volk lens, and clinical grading of diabetic retinopathy was done using the Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study guidelines. Results: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 41.4%. Of these, 2.2% of the cases had severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy while about 6% of patients had clinically significant macular edema. Vision threatening diabetic retinopathy was found in 7.3% of patients. Only 14.5% of the patients had prior eye check. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus, mean fasting blood sugar, mean systolic blood pressure, and mean diastolic blood pressure were 6.26 years, 158.8mg/dl, 124.6mmHg and 77.65mmHg respectively. There was a statistically significant association between diabetic retinopathy and duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, and systemic blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was high, and only a small proportion of the study subjects had diabetic eye check up. There is a need for integration of the Medical Diabetic Clinic and Eye Clinic for preventive diabetic care, better referral system and coordinated diabetic screening program in the study setting. Source

A comparative study on the antioxidant effect of rosemary extract (RE) and sodium ascorbate (SA) on lipid and colour oxidation of liver pâté made of lard and pork liver was done. During the 48 hour experimental time all the pâtés were wrapped in a foil and stored in cold room of 3.5°C under light of 1000 lux. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In the present study RE doses range (0,125, 250, 375 and 500 ppm) showed no significant (p>0.05) and linear effect on colour stability. However thez RE revealed a significant effect (p<0.05) against lipid oxidation and linearly reduces the TBARS number. The added SA doses (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) revealed significant (p<0.05) and linear effect in reducing discoloration. However the studied SA dose ranges showed no significant (p>0.05) effect on TBARS number. In this study RE was showed better performance against lipid oxidation and SA was potent against discoloration. The effect of the added spices used in manufacturing of the studied product showed no significant (p>0.05) effect against lipid and color oxidation. However the added spices revealed possible antagonistic and synergetic relationship with the studied the antioxidant systems (RE & SA). © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Haile D.M.,Bahirdar University | De Smet S.,Ghent University | Claeys E.,Ghent University | Vossen E.,Ghent University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The colour and lipid oxidative stability of sliced cooked ham stored at 4 C were studied in relation to dark storage duration, lighting and packaging conditions. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b*colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significantly higher discoloration observed in products wrapped in foil and kept in light than products wrapped in foil and kept in dark. Colour loss was estimated by loss of redness (a*), a*/b*, nitrosomyoglobin, chroma (C); or increase of lightness (L*), MetMb, hue angle (H). Colour loss was more dependent upon photochemical process than dark storage duration and packaging types. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected by light exposure. However lipid oxidation was significantly affected by dark storage duration as noticed from better lipid stability of products stored for short duration in dark. Better colour stability was observed on products packed in MAP with less residual oxygen. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Tiruneh K.,Care Network | Wasie B.,Bahirdar University | Gonzalez H.,American Century University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Poor socio-economic conditions fuel seasonal migration of adult males from Northwestern Ethiopia, but behavioral and other migration-related changes increase their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. This study examined risky sexual behaviors and associated factors that may lead to increased HIV infection vulnerability among migrant laborers in Metema District, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 8-18, 2013 at farms with migrant laborers. We enrolled 756 participants through multistage random sampling. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed using EPI Info7; bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results: 582 (77%) migrant workers had sexual intercourse in their lifetime. 68% (397/582) reported non-marital sexual intercourse in the preceding six months. Of these, 74% reported sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers, 49% reported having transactional sex, 49% reported unprotected sexual intercourse with CSWs, 69% reported multiple sexual partners in the preceding six months (mean = 2.9 ± 0.7). Being aged between 20-29 (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.99) and 30 years or older (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.71), receipt of HIV prevention information in the preceding six months (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.63), and staying longer on the farm (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.14) were factors significantly associated with condom use at last non-marital sexual intercourse. Respondents aged ≤19, not receiving HIV information in the preceding six months, or staying on the farm for ≤2 months were less likely to have used condoms at their last non-marital sexual intercourse. Moreover, having daily income above USD 5.00 (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.41), paying for most recent sexual intercourse (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.61), and drinking alcohol during last sexual intercourse (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.83) were significantly associated with having multiple (≥2) sexual partners during the preceding six months. Conclusions: Seasonal laborers commonly exhibit risky sexual behaviors likely to increase their vulnerability to HIV infection. Unprotected and multiple sex partners in these populations pose transmission risks to seasonal laborers and onward to their wives and future sexual partners. The findings support the need for targeted HIV prevention campaigns designed for seasonal workers and their sexual partners. © 2015 Tiruneh et al. Source

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