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PubMed | Bahirdar University, University Institute of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa Health office, Amanuel mental specialized hospital and Health Science University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC psychiatry | Year: 2016

Depression and anxiety disorders are common among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus than the non-infected individuals. The co-existence of these disorders are associated with barriers to treatment and worsening medical outcomes, including treatment resistance, increased risk for suicide, greater chance for recurrence and utilization of medical resources and/or increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing depression and anxiety among HIV patients has a pivotal role for further interventions.Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at ALERT hospital May, 2015. Data were collected using a pretested, structured and standardized questionnaire. Systematic sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of associations.The prevalence of co-morbid depression and anxiety among HIV patients was 24.5% and prevalence of depression and anxiety among HIV patients was 41.2% (172) and 32.4% (135) respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that individual who had perceived HIV stigma (AOR=3.60, 95% CI (2.23, 5.80), poor social support (AOR=2.02, 95 % CI (1.25, 3.27), HIV stage III (AOR=2.80, 95 % CI (1.50, 5.21) and poor medication adherence (AOR=1.61, 95% CI (1.02, 2.55) were significantly associated with depression. Being female (AOR=3.13, 95% CI (1.80, 5.44), being divorced (AOR=2.51, 95% CI (1.26, 5.00), having co morbid TB (AOR=2.74, 95% CI (1.37, 5.47) and perceived HIV stigma (AOR=4.00, 95% CI (2.40, 6.69) were also significantly associated with anxiety.Prevalence of depression and anxiety was high. Having perceived HIV stigma, HIV Stage III, poor social support and poor medication adherence were associated with depression. Whereas being female, being divorced and having co morbid TB and perceived HIV stigma were associated with anxiety. Ministry of health should give training on how to screen anxiety and depression among HIV patients and should develop guidelines to screen and treat depression and anxiety among HIV patients.

Vossen E.,Ghent University | Doolaege E.H.A.,Ghent University | Moges H.D.,Bahirdar University | de Meulenaer B.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The effect of sodium ascorbate (SA; 500, 750, 1000. mg/kg) and sodium nitrite (SN; 40, 80, 120. mg/kg) doses on the shelf-life stability of liver pâtés was investigated in a full factorial design. Clear dose-dependent responses of the added SN or SA were found for the concentrations of nitrite, ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in the raw batters and in the cooked pâtés before and after 48. h of chilled display. Decreasing the SN dose to 80. mg/kg had no negative impact on the colour stability (a * value) and lipid oxidation (TBARS), and no additional antioxidant effect of SA was noticed. Lowering SN to 40. mg/kg resulted in proper colour formation, but the colour stability was inferior and lipid oxidation increased. Yet, increasing the amount of SA, at this low SN dose, resulted in lower TBARS values. Decreasing the SN dose to 80 or 40. mg/kg had no distinct effect on protein oxidation, which was however only measured by carbonyl content. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Tiruneh K.,Care Network | Wasie B.,Bahirdar University | Gonzalez H.,American Century University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Poor socio-economic conditions fuel seasonal migration of adult males from Northwestern Ethiopia, but behavioral and other migration-related changes increase their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. This study examined risky sexual behaviors and associated factors that may lead to increased HIV infection vulnerability among migrant laborers in Metema District, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 8-18, 2013 at farms with migrant laborers. We enrolled 756 participants through multistage random sampling. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed using EPI Info7; bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results: 582 (77%) migrant workers had sexual intercourse in their lifetime. 68% (397/582) reported non-marital sexual intercourse in the preceding six months. Of these, 74% reported sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers, 49% reported having transactional sex, 49% reported unprotected sexual intercourse with CSWs, 69% reported multiple sexual partners in the preceding six months (mean = 2.9 ± 0.7). Being aged between 20-29 (AOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.99) and 30 years or older (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.71), receipt of HIV prevention information in the preceding six months (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.63), and staying longer on the farm (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.14) were factors significantly associated with condom use at last non-marital sexual intercourse. Respondents aged ≤19, not receiving HIV information in the preceding six months, or staying on the farm for ≤2 months were less likely to have used condoms at their last non-marital sexual intercourse. Moreover, having daily income above USD 5.00 (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.41), paying for most recent sexual intercourse (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.61), and drinking alcohol during last sexual intercourse (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.83) were significantly associated with having multiple (≥2) sexual partners during the preceding six months. Conclusions: Seasonal laborers commonly exhibit risky sexual behaviors likely to increase their vulnerability to HIV infection. Unprotected and multiple sex partners in these populations pose transmission risks to seasonal laborers and onward to their wives and future sexual partners. The findings support the need for targeted HIV prevention campaigns designed for seasonal workers and their sexual partners. © 2015 Tiruneh et al.

Haile D.M.,Bahirdar University | De Smet S.,Ghent University | Claeys E.,Ghent University | Vossen E.,Ghent University
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The colour and lipid oxidative stability of sliced cooked ham stored at 4 C were studied in relation to dark storage duration, lighting and packaging conditions. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b*colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A significantly higher discoloration observed in products wrapped in foil and kept in light than products wrapped in foil and kept in dark. Colour loss was estimated by loss of redness (a*), a*/b*, nitrosomyoglobin, chroma (C); or increase of lightness (L*), MetMb, hue angle (H). Colour loss was more dependent upon photochemical process than dark storage duration and packaging types. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected by light exposure. However lipid oxidation was significantly affected by dark storage duration as noticed from better lipid stability of products stored for short duration in dark. Better colour stability was observed on products packed in MAP with less residual oxygen. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Nezenega Z.S.,Ambo University | Gacho Y.H.M.,Jimma University | Tafere T.E.,BahirDar University
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2013

Background: Patient compliance is a key factor in treatment success. Satisfied patients are more likely to utilize health services, comply with medical treatment, and continue with the health care providers. Yet, the national tuberculosis control program failed to address some of these aspects in order to achieve the national targets. Hence, this study attempted to investigate patient satisfaction and adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Sidama zone of south Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross sectional study was conducted using quantitative method of data collection from March to April 2011. A sample of 531 respondents on anti TB treatment from 11 health centers and 1 hospital were included in the study. The sample size to each facility was allocated using probability proportional to size allocation, and study participants for the interview were selected by systematic random sampling. A Pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Collected data was edited, coded and entered to Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Confirmatory factor analysis was done to identify factors that explain most of the variance observed in most of the manifested variables. Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were computed to analyze the data. Result: The study revealed 90% of the study participants were satisfied with TB treatment service. However, 26% of respondents had poor adherence to their TB treatment. Patient perceived on professional care, time spent with health care provider, accessibility, technical competency, convenience (cleanliness) and consultation and relational empathy were independent predictors of overall patient satisfaction (P < 0.05). In addition to this, perceived waiting time was significantly associated with patient satisfaction (Beta = 0.262). In multivariate analysis occupational status, area of residence, perceived time spent with health care provider, perceived accessibility, perceived waiting time, perceived professional care and over all patient satisfaction were significantly associated with adherence to TB treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, patient waiting time at reception room (Adjusted OR = 1.022, 95% CI 1.009, 1.0035) and Patient treatment phase (Adjusted OR = 0.295, 95% CI 0.172, 0.507) were independent predictor of adherence to TB treatment. Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that patients' perceptions on health care provider interaction had a significant influence on patient satisfaction and adherence to TB treatment. Moreover, absence of drugs and long waiting time had a negative outcome on patient adherence. Therefore, the problem needs an urgent attention from programme managers and health care providers to intervene the challenges. © 2013 Nezenega et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Matebu A.,Bahirdar University | Shibabaw M.,Bahirdar University
Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2015

The main objective of this study is to explore the productivity measures typically used in Ethiopian garment manufacturing firms and its shortcomings. A case study was carried out at NGM manufacturing firm. The analysis of existing productivity measures indicates that the firm does not have proper and systematic productivity measures to monitor its productivity performance. Garment manufacturing firms did not determine the resource (labor, material, machine, energy, etc.) utilization rate and considered productivity as an equivalent to labor productivity. Partial and total productivity measurement models are developed and applied to monitor the productivity status of the firm. The models are tested using the data of five consecutive fiscal years (2007/8 to 2011/12) collected from NGM firm. Accordingly, the partial productivity indices of the firm for current year (2011/12), as compare to base year (2009/10), for each input factor (human, material, capital, energy and miscellaneous input factors) are 2.36, 0.64, 0.51, 2.25 and 1.09, respectively. The total productivity index of the current year is 0.75. Furthermore, the partial and total productivity analysis trends of NGM firm were computed in the same fiscal years. All partial productivity indices of the company during the period of 2008/9 showed a decline as compared to the base period (2009/10) which is the lowest productivity in the specified period. The total productivity index also showed the lowest (a decline by 73%) in the same period. Therefore, the developed partial and total productivity measurement models had the scope to portray the firm's performance in a comprehensive manner. © 2015 Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. All rights reserved.

Bekele A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Firew A.,Bahirdar University
Ethiopian Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare even in endemic areas and it only accounts for 0.27% of all hydatid. cyst disease cases. It can either be a primary site or part of a disseminated hydatidosis. Surgery remains to be a treatment of choice. Only few reports are published in the literatures and most of the reported cases have been diagnosed postoperatively as it is not easy to reach at a definitive diagnosis with clinical examination and radiological investigations only. This is a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of breast in an 18-year old woman from the Amhara region, Ethiopia. She presented with left breast painless lump of 5 years duration and a correct pre-operative diagnosed was made by fine needle aspiration cytology, then confirmed after surgery. We believe this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign breast lumps especially in endemic areas.

Sharew G.,Bahirdar University | Ilako D.R.,University of Nairobi | Kimani K.,University of Nairobi | Gelaw Y.,Jimma University
Ethiopian Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Diabetic retinopathy accounts for 5% of global blindness and the incidence of diabetic blindness is increasing. Although the epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy has been well described in Western populations, there remains a paucity of prevalence data in many developing countries such as Ethiopia. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and associated risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A cross sectional hospital based study was done on a total of sampled 324 diabetic patients attending medical diabetic clinic at Jimma University Hospital from February to March 2009. Eye examination for diabetic retinopathy was carried out using slit lamp biomicroscope and 90D Volk lens, and clinical grading of diabetic retinopathy was done using the Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study guidelines. Results: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 41.4%. Of these, 2.2% of the cases had severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy while about 6% of patients had clinically significant macular edema. Vision threatening diabetic retinopathy was found in 7.3% of patients. Only 14.5% of the patients had prior eye check. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus, mean fasting blood sugar, mean systolic blood pressure, and mean diastolic blood pressure were 6.26 years, 158.8mg/dl, 124.6mmHg and 77.65mmHg respectively. There was a statistically significant association between diabetic retinopathy and duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, and systemic blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was high, and only a small proportion of the study subjects had diabetic eye check up. There is a need for integration of the Medical Diabetic Clinic and Eye Clinic for preventive diabetic care, better referral system and coordinated diabetic screening program in the study setting.

A comparative study on the antioxidant effect of rosemary extract (RE) and sodium ascorbate (SA) on lipid and colour oxidation of liver pâté made of lard and pork liver was done. During the 48 hour experimental time all the pâtés were wrapped in a foil and stored in cold room of 3.5°C under light of 1000 lux. Colour stability was monitored by instrumental colour measurement (CIE L*a*b* colour space) whereas lipid stability was measured by the determination of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In the present study RE doses range (0,125, 250, 375 and 500 ppm) showed no significant (p>0.05) and linear effect on colour stability. However thez RE revealed a significant effect (p<0.05) against lipid oxidation and linearly reduces the TBARS number. The added SA doses (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) revealed significant (p<0.05) and linear effect in reducing discoloration. However the studied SA dose ranges showed no significant (p>0.05) effect on TBARS number. In this study RE was showed better performance against lipid oxidation and SA was potent against discoloration. The effect of the added spices used in manufacturing of the studied product showed no significant (p>0.05) effect against lipid and color oxidation. However the added spices revealed possible antagonistic and synergetic relationship with the studied the antioxidant systems (RE & SA). © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Mulu W.,Bahirdar University | Gidey B.,Bahirdar University | Chernet A.,Bahirdar University | Alem G.,Bahirdar University | Abera B.,Bahirdar University
Ethiopian journal of health sciences | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART), hepatotoxicity is life threatening. Its outcome may lead to liver failure and death. This study was conducted to determine the rate and determinants of elevated alanine amino transferase (ALT) (referred as >40IU/L for both males and females).METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on HIV infected individuals who are on ART and suspected of drug resistance at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar from July to December 2012. Venous bloods were collected from each patient and processed parallely to determine ALT, number of HIV RNAs, CD4 and CD8 T cells count, anti hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen.RESULTS: Out of 269 HIV infected patients receiving ART, 32% were confirmed of grades 1-4 levels of elevated ALT. The rate of severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 and 4) was 1.84%. Patients with increased CD8 T cell counts (P=0.011; AOR=1.82; CI: 1.12 -2.54), alcohol over use (P=0.014; AOR = 1.23; CI: 1.36-3.29) and detectable HIV-1 RNA copies (P=0.015; AOR=2.07; CI: 1.15-3.74) independently predicts the elevation of ALT.CONCLUSIONS: In HIV infected patients on ART, extreme elevations of ALT were infrequent but minor elevations were common so that patient-linked variables such as use of alcohol intake must be taken in to account for better clinical management of ART patients. The role of active HCV co-infection on the treatment outcome of ART should be further studied.

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