Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Bahir Dar University is a university in the city of Bahir Dar, the capital of the Amhara National Regional State in Ethiopia. The University is a combination of two smaller institutes formed earlier, after the departments were gradually raised to a degree level starting from 1996. Wikipedia.

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Background: Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of infant life along with continuation of breastfeeding up to two years. Timely initiation of breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 22 % of neonatal deaths. The objective of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Motta town, East Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Method: Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7, 2015 to May 7, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was applied after taking all registered mothers who have infants less than 6 months old from local health extension workers of each kebele. A total of 423 mothers with infant less than six month old were included in this study. The data was collected from all four Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with timely initiation breastfeeding. Result: Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was78.8 % [95 % CL: 74.88 %, 82.72 %]. Mothers who gave birth to their infant in a health institution [AOR = 3.486(1.253, 9.700)], birthed vaginally [AOR = 5.722(3.134, 11.246)] and didn't give prelacteal food [AOR = 4.627(2.095, 10.220)] were more likely to initiate breastfeeding early than their counterparts. Conclusion: Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding in the study area was 78.8 %. Place of delivery, mode of delivery and prelactal feeding were the independent predictors of timely initiation of breastfeeding. Recommendations to increase timely initiation of breastfeeding were: encouraging mothers to deliver their child in a health institution, minimizing caesarean delivery as much as possible and educating mothers and community as a whole to avoid traditional prelactal feeding practice. © 2016 The Author(s).

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem both in hospital and community acquired infections. The present study assessed the knowledge and beliefs on AMR among physicians and nurses in 13 hospitals in Amhara region, Ethiopia, which is a low-income country. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was applied. A total of 385 participants (175 physicians and 210 nurses) took part in the study. Sixty five percent of physicians and 98% of nurses replied that they need training on antimicrobial stewardship. Only 48% of physicians and 22.8% of nurses had exposures for local antibiogram data. Overall, 278 (72.2%) of participants were knowledgeable about AMR. Majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed AMR as worldwide and national problem but few considered AMR as problem in their own hospitals. The two most important factors mentioned for AMR development were patients' poor adherence to prescribed antimicrobials (86%) and overuse of antibiotics (80.5%). The most leading local factors identified for AMR development were: self-antibiotic prescription (53.5%), lack of access to local antibiogram data (12.3%) and prescriber poor awareness about AMR (9.2%). Factors perceived for excessive antibiotic prescriptions were: patient drive (56%), treatment failure (79%), unknown febrile illnesses (39.7%) and upper respiratory tract infections (33.4%). Majority of physicians and nurses lack up to-date knowledge on AMR. Unavailability of local antibiogram data, self-prescription by patients and poor awareness on AMR are areas of interventions for prevention and control of AMR.

Ahemad M.,Aligarh Muslim University | Ahemad M.,Bahir Dar University
Folia Microbiologica | Year: 2014

Chromium pollution is increasing incessantly due to continuing industrialization. Of various oxidation states, Cr6+ is very toxic due to its carcinogenic and mutagenic nature. It also has deleterious effects on different microorganisms as well as on plants. Many species of bacteria thriving in the Cr6+-contaminated environments have evolved novel strategies to cope with Cr6+ toxicity. Generally, decreased uptake or exclusion of Cr6+ compounds through the membranes, biosorption, and the upregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress response are some of the resistance mechanisms in bacterial cells to overcome the Cr6+ stress. In addition, bacterial Cr6+ reduction into Cr3+ is also a mechanism of specific significance as it transforms toxic and mobile chromium derivatives into reduced species which are innocuous and immobile. Ecologically, the bacterial trait of reductive immobilization of Cr6+ derivatives is of great advantage in bioremediation. The present review is an effort to underline the bacterial resistance and reducing mechanisms to Cr6+ compounds with recent development in order to garner a broad perspective. © 2014 Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i.

Agimass F.,Bahir Dar University | Mekonnen A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

In this paper, choice experiment was applied for valuation of Lake Tana's fishery and watershed. Two attributes - fishing control and lake side plantation - were identified as relevant attributes for the choice experiment. A monetary attribute - payment for fishing permit was also included. Multinomial and random parameter logit models were used for estimation. All the attributes included were significant factors in affecting the probability of choosing an alternative scenario. The results suggest that fishermen were more concerned about fishing control as reflected by the higher value they give to fishing control than lake side plantation. Household income, years of education, and family size were found to be significant. The economic welfare measures we calculated for two scenarios show that fishermen were willing to pay 57 birr (US$5.3)) per month for a moderate improvement scenario and 93 birr (US$8.6) per month for an aggressive scenario for the two attributes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Geremedhin W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Amare M.,Bahir Dar University | Admassie S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

A simple, inexpensive and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of fenitrothion in tap water and human urine was developed using electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon electrode. Compared to untreated glassy carbon electrode, the electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon electrode showed a significantly enhanced peak current and peak potential shift indicating its catalytic activity towards fenitrothion reduction. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the effect of pH, the dependence of peak current and peak potential on scan rate and to extract kinetic parameters (n, α, ks, Γ, E0 and ΔEpc,1/2). The peak current showed linear dependence on the concentration of fenitrothion with a linear regression equation, correlation coefficient (R2) and limit of detection (LoD) of Ipc (μA) = 0.796 C (μM) - 0.043, R 2 = 0.9972 and 7.8 × 10-8 M (S/N = 3), respectively. Recoveries in the range 93.3-96.7% from spiked tap water and 85.73-93.3% from human urine signified the applicability of the developed method for determination of fenitrothion in environmental samples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Abera B.,Bahir Dar University
Ethiopian medical journal | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: Various Vibrio cholerae serogroups cause cholera, which occurs as major epidemic disease in most developing countries. This study was aimed at determining the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae and its serotypes from cholera cases. METHODS: The study was undertaken during cholera epidemics in North West Ethiopia from August 2006 to September 2008. Diarrheic stool samples were processed per the standard microbiology procedures at Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disc diffusion technique per Kirby-Bauer method. RESULTS: Eighty one V. cholerae 01 serotype Inaba were isolated from stools of cholera cases. Antibiograms of V. cholerae 01 Inaba showed that 71.6% of isolates were resistant against two, 18.4% to three and 5% to four antibiotics. All V. cholerae Inaba isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazol 81 (100%). High levels of resistance were also shown to chloramphenicol 76 (94%) and ampicillin 72 (89%) with least resistance to erythromycin 12 (15%), tetracycline 5 (6.2) and ciprofloxacilin 1 (1.2%). However, all isolates remain susceptible to doxycycline 81 (100%). CONCLUSION: In the study area, doxycycline or ciprofloxacilin could be used for treatment of adult cholera cases whereas erythromycin is alternative for young children. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are strongly recommended for V. cholerae strains in treatment intervention during epidemics.

Background: Lack of sanitation facilities is a serious health risk and obliges people to practice open defecation, thereby increasing the risk of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to assess latrine coverage and the associated factors among the rural communities in district of Bahir Dar Zuria, Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 608 households in district of Bahir Dar Zuria. First, the district was stratified based on the distance from Bahir Dar city. Then, ten kebeles (the smallest administrative units) were selected from the 32 rural kebeles in the district. After the kebeles had been identified, the households were selected by systematic sampling method using existing list of all households as a sampling frame. Intervals (Kth)) for selecting households were determined by dividing the number of households with the sample size allocated for each kebele. After determining the Kth interval, the first household was selected randomly. The next households were identified systematically onwards by adding cumulatively Kth intervals to the first selected household.Data were collected by means of a pretested, standardized questionnaire and observation checklist. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 608 households, 355 (58.4%) had pit latrines and only 220 (62.0%) were functional (providing services during data collection). One hundred eighty seven (52.7%) had been constructed two or more years prior to the time of the study and 202 (56.9%) latrines required maintenance. The availability of latrines was twice higher in households with an income of 5000 or more Ethiopian Birr (1USD = 17.5 Ethiopian Birr) per year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.27) than those who hand an income less than 5000 Birr per year; the availability of latrines was twofold higher in households visited by health professional at least three times a month (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.33-3.93) than those that received no visits. The latrine coverage was about two times higher in households that were less than 30 minutes walk from a health institution (AOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.22) than households that were over 30 minutes walk. The latrine coverage was lower in households located in distant areas (AOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.77) than in households closer to the city. Conclusions: Latrine coverage in District of Bahir Dar Zuria was far from the national target of 100%. The availability of latrines was affected by income level, frequency of visits by health workers, walking time from local health institutions, and distance from Bahir Dar. Therefore, it is recommended that the frequency of supportive visits be increased and that special attention be given to households in inaccessible areas. © 2013 Awoke and Muche; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-39-2015 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2016

its4land delivers an innovative suite of land tenure recording tools that responds to sub Saharan Africas immense challenge to rapidly and cheaply map millions of unrecognized land rights in the region. ICT innovation will play a key role. Existing approaches have failed: disputes abound, investment is impeded, and the communitys poorest lose out. its4land reinforces strategic collaboration between the EU and East Africa via a scalable and transferrable ICT solution. Established local, national, and international partnerships drive the project results beyond R&D into the commercial realm. its4land combines an innovation process with emerging geospatial technologies, including smart sketchmaps, UAVs, automated feature extraction, and geocloud services, to deliver land recording services that are end-user responsive, market driven, and fit-for-purpose. The transdisciplinary work also develops supportive models for governance, capacity development, and business capitalization. Gender sensitive analysis and design is also incorporated. Set in the East African development hotbeds of Rwanda, Kenya, and Ethiopia, its4land falls within TRL 5-7: 3 major phases host 8 work packages that enable contextualization, design, and eventual land sector transformation. In line with Living Labs thinking, localized pilots and demonstrations are embedded in the design process. The experienced consortium is multi-sectorial, multi-national, and multidisciplinary. It includes SMEs and researchers from 3 EU countries and 3 East African countries: the necessary complementary skills and expertise is delivered. Responses to the range of barriers are prepared: strong networks across East Africa are key in mitigation. The tailored project management plan ensures clear milestones and deliverables, and supports result dissemination and exploitation: specific work packages and roles focus on the latter.

News Article | November 22, 2016

RALEIGH, N.C. -- A team of scientists conducting a recent biodiversity survey in the ancient church forests of Ethiopia made an unexpected discovery -- a rather infamous ant species (Lepisiota canescens) displaying signs of supercolony formation. According to D. Magdalena Sorger, a post-doctoral researcher with the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and a key member of the team, the discovery is significant for two reasons. First, supercolony formation in ants is rare, with documented cases of only around 20 species worldwide. Second, other species in the Lepisiota genus have recently made headlines as worrisome invasive species, one in South Africa's Kruger National Park and another that shut down Australia's Darwin Port for several days. The team's findings, were published in Insectes Sociaux in November. In Ethiopia, forests frequently surround Orthodox churches, some of which are more than 1,500 years old. These forests range in size from only a few hectares to more than 400 (~1,000 acres) and can be considered relict oases within largely barren land and agricultural fields. While L. canescens is native to the general region, it is now moving in large numbers into disturbed habitat like some of the more degraded church forests, but also beyond forest boundaries, into neighboring agricultural fields, and along recently constructed roads and other urban structures. And that might be just the beginning, says lead author Sorger, who worked on this study while at North Carolina State University. "The species we found in Ethiopia may have a high potential of becoming a globally invasive species. Invasive species often travel with humans, so as tourism and global commerce to this region of Ethiopia continues to increase, so will the likelihood that the ants could hitch a ride, possibly in plant material or even in the luggage of tourists. All it takes is one pregnant queen. That's how fire ants started!" Supercolonies are colonies that extend beyond just a single nest and can sometimes cover many thousands of miles. The strongest basis for describing a large colony as a supercolony is its capacity to expand its range without constraints. In this study, the scientists found several supercolonies of L. canescens, the largest one spanning 38 km (24 miles). Molecular analysis of these ants showed lots of genetic diversity within and between supercolonies, indicating supercolony members were not more closely related and this species was native to the region. These are the largest documented supercolonies of a native ant species. Yet their exploding numbers, along with their observed ecological dominance as well as general nesting and diet, are all characteristics reminiscent of an invasive species. Overall, Sorger believes Ethiopian church forests might be ground zero for a new dominant ant species with high global invasion potential, and the data her and colleagues are collecting on this species could become critical in the case of an invasion. "It is good to have a record of what this species does in its native habitat," Sorger says. "Rarely do we know anything about the biology of a species BEFORE it becomes invasive." The paper, "Outnumbered: A new dominant ant species with genetically diverse supercolonies in Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae: Lepisiota)," is published in the journal Insectes Sociaux. The paper was co-authored by Warren Booth, Alemayehu Wassie Eshete, Meg Lowman and Mark Moffett. Note to Editors: The study abstract follows. "Outnumbered: A new dominant ant species with genetically diverse supercolonies in Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae: Lepisiota)" Authors: D. Magdalena Sorger, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences; Warren Booth, The University of Tulsa; Alemayehu Wassie Eshete, Bahir Dar University; Meg Lowman, California Academy of Sciences; and Mark W. Moffett, Smithsonian Institution. Abstract: A Lepisiota species in Ethiopia has been observed forming supercolonies spanning up to 38 km. L. canescens occurs at very high densities where there is sufficient moisture or herbaceous cover and dominates the local ant community, traits reminiscent of an invasive species. The supercolonies are genetically diverse, however, indicating they have not gone through the population bottleneck usually characteristic of species invasions. We conclude that the species is native to this region, though expanding its range locally into areas of human disturbance, where it is exploding in numbers. The lack of aggression across a genetically diverse population suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation is decoupled from variation relating to colony recognition cues like cuticular hydrocarbons. All in all, L. canescens could have the makings of an invasive species at an international scale, and may represent a novel system to study the evolution and spread of supercolonies in ants.

News Article | February 27, 2017

A major new research programme will be launched today at the University of East Anglia (UEA) to help improve understanding about how adult learning can address inequalities in the poorest communities of the world. The university has been invited by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to join its prestigious University Network and establish the first UNESCO Chair in Adult Literacy and Learning for Social Transformation. Led by Chairholder Anna Robinson-Pant, professor of education at UEA, the international collaboration with researchers in Nepal, Ethiopia and Egypt will focus in particular on women and young adults, investigating how or why adult literacy and learning programmes might better respond to processes of social transformation, including women's empowerment. The Chair programme aims to strengthen the interaction between formal, non-formal and informal learning in research, policy and programmes and will build directly on the expertise of the UEA Literacy and Development Group, which brings together researchers in education and international development from across the university. Today's launch will be opened by UEA Vice-Chancellor Prof David Richardson, with speakers including James Bridge, chief executive of the UK National Commission for UNESCO. The event will feature presentations by the UEA UNESCO Chair team, Prof Alan Smith (UNESCO Chairholder in Education for Pluralism, Human Rights and Democracy, University of Ulster), Prof Mary Hamilton (University of Lancaster), Prof Gemma Moss (Institute of Education, University College London), Mari Hartl (International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFAD) and Mari Yasunaga (UNESCO Paris). Among the topics to be discussed at the launch will be indigenous women and adult literary, as well as a joint IFAD-UNESCO project on learning knowledge and skills for agriculture to improve rural livelihoods. Prof Robinson-Pant led the project, which prompted the initial proposal for a Chair in this area. This UNESCO Chair programme is a partnership with university departments specialising in adult literacy and community learning in Ethiopia (Bahir Dar University), Nepal (Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University Research Center for Educational Innovation and Development, CERID) and Egypt (Ain Shams University). Prof Robinson-Pant recently visited Nepal to meet with colleagues at Kathmandu University, CERID, the Ministry of Education and key development agencies to discuss possible collaborative research projects around adult literacy and education and community learning. Prof Robinson-Pant said: "We are delighted to launch this programme today. Adult education can become a force for change in the poorest communities of the world and this is a real opportunity to work closely with colleagues in Ethiopia, Egypt and Nepal who share that view. "Our programme of collaborative research and training should also contribute to the 2030 sustainable development agenda, highlighting the central role of adult learning and literacy in areas like health and agricultural development." The chair of the UK National Commission for UNESCO, Dr Beth Taylor, said: "I am delighted to welcome the Chair in Adult Literacy and Learning for Social Transformation to the UK's UNESCO Chairs Network. The Chair will join a well-established network of 16 UK UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks in diverse subjects ranging from Sustainable Mountain Development to Archaeological Ethics. Being accepted to the Network is in recognition of the University of East Anglia's academic excellence and the contribution of its research to UNESCO's core mission of promoting peace in the minds of men and women. "I hope that the designation will help provide a national and global platform for the Chair's research, and will add value for the university. Recent research by the UK National Commission found that UK Chairs generated an estimated £14.4 million in 2014/15 through their association with UNESCO." The UEA team consists of Prof Robinson-Pant, Prof Nitya Rao, Dr Sheila Aikman, Dr Catherine Jere, Prof Alan Rogers and Dr Spyros Themelis. The expertise of the group includes literacy and women's empowerment, migration and education, the influence of education on social and economic mobility, and cultural and linguistic change in low income countries. The aim of the Chair is to strengthen qualitative research capacity in the field of adult literacy, learning and social transformation through collaborative research and curriculum development activities. It also sets out to develop new initiatives with key policy organisations in this field - particularly the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning in Hamburg - the aim being to promote greater interaction between research and policy in areas such as vocational skill development, health and agriculture. A series of research workshops is proposed as part of the new Chair, as well as an international conference in 2018. The team also hope to work with organisations involved in adult education in Norwich - such as New Routes, an established NGO working with recently settled migrants - to inform some of the international activities.

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