Sinishaw M.A.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Gebregergs G.B.,Bahir Dar University |
Shiferaw M.B.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Adequate supplies of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables are necessary for tuberculosis diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response. This study assessed the distribution and stock levels of laboratory commodities used in tuberculosis control in health centers of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 82 health centers, among 801, providing sputum microscopy services. Stock levels were calculated, and distribution of reagents and consumables assessed. Thirty three (40.2%) health centers were under stocked for at least one of the key items for tuberculosis diagnosis at the time of visit. Fifteen (18.3%) health centers had no stocks of at least one of the key items (methylene blue (11%), carbol fuchsin (11%), acid alcohol (8.5%) and sputum cups (3.7%)). Of the 82 health centers, 77 (93.9%) did not fulfill the criteria for effective distribution of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables. There were many health centers that had no or only low stocks of key tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables as a result of ineffective distribution system. It is necessary to strengthen supply chain management to ensure uninterrupted TB diagnostic service. © 2015 Sinishaw et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abera B.,Bahir Dar University |
Yitayew G.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Amare H.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2016
Introduction:Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson’s Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. Results: The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. Conclusions: There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures. © 2016 Abera et al.
Shiferaw M.B.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Mengistu A.D.,Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Background Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. Conclusions There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease. © 2015 Shiferaw, Mengistu.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any edium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mulu W.,Bahir Dar University |
Mekonnen 1 D.,Bahir Dar University |
Yimer 1 M.,Bahir Dar University |
Admassu 2 A.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Abera 1 B.,Bahir Dar University
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015
Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is becoming a major threat to tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia. Objectives: To determine risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: Case-control study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2014. Resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid were done molecularly using line probe assay. TB patients infected with MDR-M.tuberculosis and non MDR-M.tuberculosis strain were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Data was collected using structured questionnaire with face to face interview. Patients’ clinical record review was also done.Multivariate analysis was computed to determine the risk factors of MDR-TB. Results: A total of 153 MDR-TB and equal number of non MDR-TB patients’ participated in the study. Patients who had TB treatment failure (AOR=13.5,CI=2.69-70), cavitations on chest x-ray (AOR=1.9,CI=1.1-3.38) and contact with MDR-TB patients (AOR=1.4,CI=0.19-0.39) were more likely to be MDR-TB patients. Low monthly income (AOR=1.1,CI=0.34-0.47),alcohol consumption (AOR=1.5,CI=0.2-0.98) and young age (AOR=2.9,CI=1.07-7.68) were the other risk factors of MDR-TB. Conclusions: TB treatment failure, cavitation on chest X-ray, contact with MDR-TB patients and low socioeconomic status were important risk factors for development of MDR-TB. Therefore, strict adherence to directly observed therapy, appropriate management of TB patients and advice on the value of nutrients are helpful to control the spreading of MDR-TB. © 2015 Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Bahir Dar University and Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2016
Ear infection linked with frequent antibiotic prescription, hearing impairment, severe disability and death is a public health threat in developing countries. However, there is scarcity of documented data in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining bacterial etiologic agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients of all age groups referred to Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center. Retrospective data recorded on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility profile were retrieved for analysis. Pus swabs from discharging ears collected and processed for aerobic bacteria culture and susceptibility testing. Of the total 368 pus swab samples processed, 296 (80.4%) were culture positive. Of which, 289 (97.6%) were bacteria and 7 (2.4%) were yeast cells. The proportion of ear infection was higher in males (92.7%) than females (65%) (P=0.014). The frequency of ear infection below 21years of age was 65.2%. The predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (26.3%) and Proteus spp. (21.9%). High level of antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin and penicillin whereas ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and amikacin were found effective against the isolated bacteria. Aerobic bacterial otitis media linked with high levels of resistance against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin is major health problem in the study area. Moreover, considerable level of oxacillin resistant S. aureus suggests the diffusion of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community. Therefore, treatment of otitis media in the study area needs to be guided by antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates.
Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study
PubMed | Adama Science and Technology University and Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
Type: | Journal: AIDS research and treatment | Year: 2016
Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced and HAART nave patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART nave patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART nave patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART nave patients (P = 0.002). Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87-19.39), opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04-8.19), current CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06-4.39), and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001-3.33) were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART nave HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting.
Balew M.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Moges F.,Health Science University |
Yismaw G.,Health Science University |
Unakal C.,Health Science University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2014
Objective: To assess hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and associated risk factors among HIV infected patients at Debretabor hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients attending Debretabor hospital from February to April, 2012. Venous blood samples were collected from study participants for HBsAg and anti HCV antibody tests. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify associated variables with HBsAg and anti HCV positivity. Variables having P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. Results: From a total of 395 HIV infected patients included in this study, 234 (59.2%) were females and 161 (40.8%) males with mean (±SD) age of 36.31 (±9.91) years. The prevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV antibody was 6.1% and 1.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, multiple sexual partner (AOR=8.1, 95% CI=1.8-33.97) and history of opportunistic infections (AOR=3.17, 95% CI=1.3-7.7) were statistically associated with HBsAg positivity. History of blood transfusion (AOR=5.61, 95% CI= 1.03-36.59) was associated with presence of anti-HCV antibody. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti HCV antibodies in HIV coinfected patients was intermediate. However, it is relevant for HIV infected patients since viral hepatitis co-infections in HIV patients can cause multiple complications. Therefore, routine HBV and HCV screening with reliable diagnostic markers need to be carried out for close monitoring and better management in HIV patients. © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.
PubMed | J. Craig Venter Institute, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Felegehiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital and Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2017
The feeding habits and close physical contact between Ethiopian farmers and their cattle promote the transmission of tuberculosis (TB) between the farmers and their cattle. This study aimed to investigate the transmission of TB between farmers and their cattle in smallholder farms in northwestern Ethiopia.A total of 70 human TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) cases visiting the Felegehiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital in Bahir Dar City and 660 cattle were investigated. Half of the cattle were owned by households with TB cases, and the remaining half by TB free households. Among the 70 human TBLN patients interviewed, 65.7% (46 out of 70) of the respondents were not aware of zoonotic TB, and 67.1% (47/70) of them consumed raw milk. Positive cultures of TB were obtained in 40 of the 70 cases where TBLN tests were positive with fine needle aspiration cytology. Spoligotyping resulted in 31 different patterns, of which 25 isolates were Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, and the remaining were M. africanum (4 isolates) and M. bovis (2 isolates). None of the animals showed positive test results for bovine TB by comparative intradermal tuberculin test.Based on the identification of M. bovis from two patients diagnosed with TBLN, we obtained preliminary evidence of zoonotic transmission of TB in northwestern Ethiopia. We did not identify a direct route of transmission between cattle and its owners. This is the objective of further investigations.
Amare H.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Gelaw A.,Health Science University |
Anagaw B.,Health Science University |
Gelaw B.,Health Science University
Infectious Diseases of Poverty | Year: 2013
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease which is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a three times higher risk of developing active TB than people without diabetes. However, there is not enough credible information on the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among DM patients in Ethiopia, in general, and in the city of Dessie, in particular. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of smear positive PTB among diabetic patients at a referral hospital in Dessie. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to April 2012. Patient demographic characteristics were collected using a pre-tested standard questionnaire format. Spot-morning-spot sputum specimens were collected from the study participants and examined for acid-fast bacilli using direct microscopy by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 16 statistical software and p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of 225 TB suspected diabetic patients, 52% were males and 48% were females. Their ages ranged from 12 to 82 years, with a mean age of 47.2 years. Urban residence (AOR: 5.5; 95% CI: 1.07-28.20), history of TB (AOR: 13.4; 95% CI: 2.74-65.73), contact with TB patients in the family (AOR: 9.4; 95% CI: 1.822-48.50), and long duration of DM (AOR: 8.89; 95% CI: 1.88-58.12) were independently associated with the development of active TB in people living with DM. Conclusions: The prevalence of smear positive PTB was 6.2% in TB suspected diabetic patients, which is higher compared with the general population (0.39%). Patients with a previous history of contact with TB patients, as well as those who had prolonged diabetes, were more prone to have PTB. Therefore, screening of diabetic patients for PTB infection during follow-up is necessary. © 2013 Amare et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Sinishaw M.A.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center |
Gebregergs G.B.,Mekelle University |
Shiferaw M.B.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2016
Objective: To evaluate the lead time of tuberculosis (TB) laboratory commodities in Amhara region. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in Amhara region from April 28 to May 26, 2014. A total of 82 health centers were recruited using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Lead time of reagents and consumables was calculated using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 20 (24.4%) health centers took more than two weeks to receive TB laboratory reagents from Woreda Health Office and the longest lead time was 1 to 2 month(s) in 10 (12.2%) health centers. Transportation delay of consumables was 5 times higher among Pharmaceuticals and Fund Supply Agency (odds ratio: 4.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5-9.0) and 4 times higher among Woreda (odds ratio: 3.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.0-6.9) as compared to health center truck. Conclusions: One fourth of health centers had longer lead time of TB laboratory commodities as a result of transportation delay. Thus, decentralization of transportation with dedicated vehicles is recommended to shorten lead times. © 2016 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.