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Beyene B.B.,Amhara Regional Health Bureau | Yalew W.G.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center | Demilew E.,World Vision | Abie G.,Amhara Regional Health Bureau | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

Background & objectives: Malaria is one of the leading public health challenges in Ethiopia. To address this, the Federal Ministry of Ethiopia launched a laboratory diagnosis programme for promoting use of either rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or Giemsa microscopy to all suspected malaria cases. This study was conducted to assess the performance of RDT and influencing factors for Giemsa microscopic diagnosis in Amhara region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 high burden malaria districts of Amhara region from 15 May to 15 June 2014. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 1000 malaria suspected cases in 10 health centers. RDT (SD BIOLINE) and Giemsa microscopy were performed as per standard procedures. Kappa value, logistic regression and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall positivity rate (PR) of malaria parasites by RDT and Giemsa microscopy was 17.1 and 16.5% respectively. Compared to Giemsa microscopy as “gold standard”, RDT showed 83.9% sensitivity and 96% specificity. The level of agreement between first reader and second reader for blood film microscopy was moderate (Kappa value = 0.74). Logistic regression showed that male, under five year of age and having fever more than 24 h prior to malaria diagnosis had statistically significant association with malaria positivity rate for malaria parasites. Interpretation & conclusion: The overall specificity and negative predictive values of RDT for malaria diagnosis were excellent. However, the sensitivity and positive predictive values of RDT were low. Therefore, in-service training, quality monitoring of RDTs, and adequate laboratory supplies for diagnostic services of malaria would be crucial for effective intervention measures. © 2016, Malaria Research Center. All rights reserved. Source

Shiferaw M.B.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center | Mengistu A.D.,Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital

Background Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. Conclusions There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease. © 2015 Shiferaw, Mengistu.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any edium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Mekonnen D.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center | Mekonnen D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Gebre-Selassie S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Fantaw S.,Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Pan African Medical Journal

Introduction: The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with level of 0.05 and 80% power. Results: Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. Conclusion: In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals. © Daniel Mekonnen et al. Source

Wondimeneh Y.,Health Science University | Muluye D.,Health Science University | Alemu A.,Health Science University | Atinafu A.,Health Science University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Women's Health

Background: Many women die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. In developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where access to emergency obstetrical care is often limited, obstetric fistula usually occurs as a result of prolonged obstructed labour. Obstetric fistula patients have many social and health related problems like urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this reality there was limited data on prevalence UTIs on those patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, drug susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of UTI among obstetric fistula patients at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May, 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. From each post repair obstetric fistula patients, socio-demographic and UTIs associated risk factors were collected by using a structured questionnaire. After the removal of their catheters, the mid-stream urine was collected and cultured on CLED. After overnight incubation, significant bacteriuria was sub-cultured on Blood Agar Plate (BAP) and MacConkey (MAC). The bacterial species were identified by series of biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by disc diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 53 post repair obstetric fistula patients were included for the determination of bacterial isolate and 28 (52.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria. Majority of the bacterial isolates, 26 (92.9%), were gram negative bacteria and the predominant ones were Citrobacter 13 (24.5%) and E. coli 6 (11.3%). Enterobacter, E.coli and Proteus mirabilis were 100% resistant to tetracycline. Enterobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsella pneumonia, Klebsella ozenae and Staphylococcus aureus were also 100% resistant to ceftriaxone.Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial isolates in obstetric fistula patients was high and majority of the isolates were gram negative bacteria. Even thought the predominant bacterial isolates were Citrobacter and E. coli, all of the bacterial isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance patterns which alert health profession to look better treatment for these patients. © 2014 Wondimeneh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mulu W.,Bahir Dar University | Mekonnen 1 D.,Bahir Dar University | Yimer 1 M.,Bahir Dar University | Admassu 2 A.,Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center | Abera 1 B.,Bahir Dar University
African Health Sciences

Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is becoming a major threat to tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia. Objectives: To determine risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: Case-control study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2014. Resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid were done molecularly using line probe assay. TB patients infected with MDR-M.tuberculosis and non MDR-M.tuberculosis strain were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Data was collected using structured questionnaire with face to face interview. Patients’ clinical record review was also done.Multivariate analysis was computed to determine the risk factors of MDR-TB. Results: A total of 153 MDR-TB and equal number of non MDR-TB patients’ participated in the study. Patients who had TB treatment failure (AOR=13.5,CI=2.69-70), cavitations on chest x-ray (AOR=1.9,CI=1.1-3.38) and contact with MDR-TB patients (AOR=1.4,CI=0.19-0.39) were more likely to be MDR-TB patients. Low monthly income (AOR=1.1,CI=0.34-0.47),alcohol consumption (AOR=1.5,CI=0.2-0.98) and young age (AOR=2.9,CI=1.07-7.68) were the other risk factors of MDR-TB. Conclusions: TB treatment failure, cavitation on chest X-ray, contact with MDR-TB patients and low socioeconomic status were important risk factors for development of MDR-TB. Therefore, strict adherence to directly observed therapy, appropriate management of TB patients and advice on the value of nutrients are helpful to control the spreading of MDR-TB. © 2015 Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source

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