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Trindade M.A.S.,Bahia State University
International Journal of Modern Physics B | Year: 2017

In this work, we prove a weak law and a strong law of large numbers through the concept of (Formula presented.)-product for dependent random variables, in the context of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Applications for the consistency of estimators are presented and connections with stochastic processes are discussed. © 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company

Carels N.,Instituto Oswaldo cruz IOc | Frias D.,Bahia State University
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights | Year: 2013

In this study, we investigated the modalities of coding open reading frame (cORF) classification of expressed sequence tags (EST) by using the universal feature method (UFM). The UFM algorithm is based on the scoring of purine bias (Rrr) and stop codon frequencies. UFM classifies ORFs as coding or non-coding through a score based on 5 factors: (i) stop codon frequency; (ii) the product of the probabilities of purines occurring in the three positions of nucleotide triplets; (iii) the product of the probabilities of Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Adenine (A) occurring in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions of triplets, respectively; (iv) the probabilities of a G occurring in the 1st and 2nd positions of triplets; and (v) the probabilities of a T occurring in the 1st and an A in the 2nd position of triplets. Because UFM is based on primary determinants of coding sequences that are conserved throughout the biosphere, it is suitable for cORF classification of any sequence in eukaryote transcriptomes without prior knowledge. Considering the protein sequences of the Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB or more simply PDB) as a reference, we found that UFM classifies cORFs of $200 bp (if the coding strand is known) and cORFs of $300 bp (if the coding strand is unknown), and releases them in their coding strand and coding frame, which allows their automatic translation into protein sequences with a success rate equal to or higher than 95%. We frst established the statistical parameters of UFM using ESTs from Plasmodium falciparum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in reference to the protein sequences of PDB. Second, we showed that the success rate of cORF classification using UFM is expected to apply to approximately 95% of higher eukaryote genes that encode for proteins. Third, we used UFM in combination with CAP3 to assemble large EST samples into cORFs that we used to analyze transcriptome phenotypes in rice, maize, and humans. We discuss the error rate and the interference of noisy sequences such as pseudogenes, transposons, and retrotransposons. This method is suitable for rapid cORF extraction from transcriptome data and allows correct description of the genome phenotypes of plant genomes without prior knowledge. Additional care is necessary when addressing the human transcriptome due to the interference caused by large amounts of noisy sequences. UFM can be regarded as a low complexity tool for prior knowledge extraction concerning the coding fraction of the transcriptome of any eukaryote. Due to its low level of complexity, UFM is also very robust to variations of codon usage. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

The impact of corpora is easily observable in Linguistics: it has changed the way we understand language use. However, despite their potential for impact in society, the use of corpora inside and outside the university settings in Northeast Brazil is still restricted. Rather than compiling another research corpus, the present project aims at engaging several educational communities in the use of freely available corpora. The use of CL in teacher education opens exciting prospects in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL): it can be seen as "a new pedagogical perspective to foreign language acquisition" (Granger, 2002). This Project presents the práxis of CL in pre service teaching in Northeastern Public Universities in Bahia, Brazil. It also presents results of the expanding use of pedagogical applications of CL in small rural public secondary schools as well.

This paper sought to verify the perceptions of hypertensive people in relation to the risk factors and their experience with high blood pressure in a Reference Center for Cardiovascular Diseases in the city of Salvador. Interviews were staged with 33 hypertensive people. This is a descriptive study, of a qualitative nature, supported by the discourse analysis proposed by Foucault. It was observed that risk factors were confused with hypertension complications. Nevertheless, when the approach changed from "risk factors" to "factors that can increase blood pressure," it was seen that the answers were more coherent with the risk factors classified by the VI Brazilian Policies on Hypertension. Furthermore, it was also observed through the discourses that the perception of increase in blood pressure is directly related to experiences. Therefore, it is necessary that the guidance be transmitted as clearly as possible in order for the understanding to become an important facilitator for controlling the illness. This paper enabled the perception of the risk factors in the viewpoint of these people in such a manner as to supply clues for the interdisciplinary health team to promote healthcare based on the experiences and the socio-economic and cultural context in which these people are inserted.

Paixao R.C.,Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro | Paixao R.C.,Bahia State University | Da Mota G.R.,Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro | Marocolo M.,Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

We verified the acute effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in cyclists before high-intensity and short-duration activity. 15 amateur cyclists participated in a random crossover model on 2 different days [IPC or CONTROL (CON)]. Ischemic preconditioning consisted of 4 cycles of 5 min occlusion/5 min reperfusion in each thigh. After IPC or CON, volunteers performed a series of Wingate tests to evaluate anaerobic performance (maximal [Pmax] and medium [Pmed] power output, total anaerobic power, and fatigue index). Blood lactate concentrations were assessed at 6 min after each Wingate test. Ischemic preconditioning decreased Pmax (p<0.05), Pmed (p<0.01), and total anaerobic power (p<0.01) in the first Wingate, and decreased Pmed (p<0.01) and total anaerobic power (p<0.01) in the second Wingate (p<0.01). No significant differences were found in blood lactate or fatigue index between IPC and CON. In conclusion, our results indicate that IPC has a detrimental acute effect on anaerobic performance in amateur cyclists. Compared with positive results of previous studies, the effect of IPC seems to be dependent on the type of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

Fernandez-Delgado M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cernadas E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Barro S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Amorim D.,Bahia State University
Journal of Machine Learning Research | Year: 2014

We evaluate 179 classifiers arising from 17 families (discriminant analysis, Bayesian, neural networks, support vector machines, decision trees, rule-based classifi ers, boosting, bagging, stacking, random forests and other ensembles, generalized linear models, nearestneighbors, partial least squares and principal component regression, logistic and multinomial regression, multiple adaptive regression splines and other methods), implemented in Weka, R (with and without the caret package), C and Matlab, including all the relevant classifiers available today. We use 121 data sets, which represent the whole UCI data base (excluding the large-scale problems) and other own real problems, in order to achieve significant conclusions about the classifier behavior, not dependent on the data set collection. The classifiers most likely to be the bests are the random forest (RF) versions, the best of which (implemented in R and accessed via caret) achieves 94.1% of the maximum accuracy overcoming 90% in the 84.3% of the data sets. However, the difference is not statistically significant with the second best, the SVM with Gaussian kernel implemented in C using LibSVM, which achieves 92.3% of the maximum accuracy. A few models are clearly better than the remaining ones: random forest, SVM with Gaussian and polynomial kernels, extreme learning machine with Gaussian kernel, C5.0 and avNNet (a committee of multi-layer perceptrons implemented in R with the caret package). The random forest is clearly the best family of classifiers (3 out of 5 bests classi ers are RF), followed by SVM (4 classifiers in the top-10), neural networks and boosting ensembles (5 and 3 members in the top-20, respectively). © 2014 Manuel Fernández-Delgado, Eva Cernadas, Senén Barro and Dinani Amorim.

De Medeiros P.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Santos Pinto B.L.,Federal University of Bahia | Do Nascimento V.T.,Bahia State University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance This study examined how people classify plants in terms of their taste and smell, and how those organoleptic properties influence the differential use of medicinal plants for treating different diseases.Methods We conducted an ethnobotanical survey of household heads in the community of Sucruiu, located in Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil. The head of each family was questioned concerning their knowledge and use of medicinal plants, as well as the therapeutic indications (TIs), taste, and smell of each plant. We then tested for associations between the therapeutic indications and taste attributes of various plants using the Chi-squared test on a contingency table with Monte Carlo simulations. The same analysis was performed for associations between TIs and smell.Results The study participants provided more details when classifying tastes than when classifying smells. We considered only the most cited TIs and attributes, and found significant associations between both taste and therapeutic indications (p<0.001) and smell and therapeutic indications (p<0.0001).Conclusions Our results showed that the taste and smell of a plant can influence its differential medicinal use, since plants with certain tastes and smells prevailed in the treatment of distinct diseases. However, our results are valid only for the most popular TIs and organoleptic attributes. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trindade M.A.S.,Bahia State University
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry | Year: 2014

In this article, we prove some general theorems about representations of finite groups arising from the inner semidirect product of groups. We show how these results can be used for standard applications of group theory in quantum chemistry through the orthogonality relations for the characters of irreducible representations. In this context, conditions for transitions between energy levels, projection operators, and basis functions were determined. This approach applies to composite systems and it is illustrated by the dihedral group related to glycolate oxidase enzyme. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gulev S.K.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Belyaev K.,Bahia State University
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

To analyze the probability density distributions of surface turbulent heat fluxes, the authors apply the two-parametric modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution to the sensible and latent turbulent heat fluxes recomputed from 6-hourly NCEP-NCAR reanalysis state variables for the period from 1948 to 2008. They derived the mean climatology and seasonal cycle of the location and scale parameters of the MFT distribution. Analysis of the parameters of probability distributions identified the areas where similar surface turbulent fluxes are determined by the very different shape of probability density functions. Estimated extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W m -2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W m -2 for higher percentiles in the subpolar latitudes and western boundary current regions. Analysis of linear trends and interannual var- iability in the mean and extreme fluxes shows that the strongest trends in extreme fluxes (more than 15 W m -2 decade -1) in the western boundary current regions are associated with the changes in the shape of distribution. In many regions changes in extreme fluxes may be different from those for the mean fluxes at interannual and decadal time scales. The correlation between interannual variability of the mean and extreme fluxes is relatively low in the tropics, the Southern Ocean, and the Kuroshio Extension region. Analysis of probability distributions in turbulent fluxes has also been used in assessing the impact of sampling errors in the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS)-based surface flux climatologies, allowed for the estimation of the impact of sampling in extreme fluxes. Although sampling does not have a visible systematic effect on mean fluxes, sampling uncertainties result in the underestimation of extreme flux values exceeding 100 W m -2 in poorly sampled regions. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

The aim of this article is to report the clinical case of non-surgical treatment of a Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite, associated with absence of a maxillary central incisor avulsed due to trauma. Treatment proceeded with the use of orthodontic mini-implants as an anchorage device for intrusion of the maxillary molars and for mesial movement of the lateral incisor to replace the central incisor. Treatment resulted in good occlusion, with anterior and lateral guides, enhancement of the facial profile, and good dental esthetic appearance without the need for prosthetic treatment. The treatment outcome was satisfactory but needs long-term or permanent retention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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