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Multān, Pakistan

Ali I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shakeel A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saeed A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Nazeer W.,Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2016

Combining ability and heterosis for within-boll yield components and fibre quality traits were carried out using line × tester mating system in upland cotton at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Variance due to specific combining ability was greater than general combining ability for all the traits depicting the importance of non-additive genetic effects.The line BH-89 was found to be good general combiner for lint mass per boll, seed volume per 100 seeds, surface area per seed and lint percentage. NIAB-999 was good general combiner for fibre fineness. The third line which was actually the F1 of the first two lines performed better regardingseed number per boll, seed mass per bolland fibre strength.Among testers, NIAB-78 exhibited higher GCA effects for seed number per boll, lint mass per boll and fibre fineness while CIM-1100 proved to be good general combiner for seed volume per 100-seeds, surface area per seed and lint percentage. NIAB-999 × VH-144 exhibited the highest SCA effects regarding seeds per boll and seed mass per boll while the cross NIAB-999 × CIM-70 was considered desirable for seed volume per 100-seeds and surface area per seed. Maximum heterosis over better parent for lint mass per boll and lint percentage was observed for the cross BH-89 × NIAB-78 while for seed volume per 100-seeds and surface area per seed, NIAB-999 × CIM-240 was the best. © 2016, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved. Source

Ahmad F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ahmad F.,BahauddinZakariya University | Weimin D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Qishud D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
International Agricultural Engineering Journal | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to develop the 3D DEM model to investigate single disc type furrow opener in paddy soil under no-till soil conditions. Soil tillage is one of the major energy consuming operations in agricultural production. Better understanding of soil tool interaction has significance for the design of tillage tool and their performance. Precision tillage of the soil is required in no-till soil environment. Single disc furrow opener is also used for tillage and crop residue cutting. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of single disc furrow opener in paddy soil at three depths (3cm,6cm and 9 cm) and three speeds (0.1 m/s,0.2 m/s and 0.3 m/s), using test bench equipped with S type load cell for determination of horizontal and vertical forces. A Lab VIEW program was developed to convert the pressure on the load cells to voltage. The results showed that depth and speed significantly (p<0.05) affected the draft force and vertical pressure on the signal disc. Based on the discrete element modeling (DEM) theory, a discrete element model was developed to simulate the single disc furrow opener using EDEM software. For granular materials, the discrete element modeling is one of the best computer tools to simulate their behavior and interactions. Simulated and field experimental data was compared to determine the applicability in the different working conditions. Source

Asif M.,Punjab Medical College | Manzoor Z.,Isra University of Pakistan | Farooq M.S.,Punjab Medical College | Munawar S.H.,Isra University of Pakistan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine the levels of oxidant, antioxidant and serum enzymes in thalassaemic children receiving multiple blood transfusions. Methods: The case-control study was done from February to August 2012, and comprised thalassaemic children receiving multiple blood transfusions at Allied Hospital, Ali Zeb Foundation, and the Thalassaemia Centre in Hilal-e-Ahmar Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Healthy subjects were also screened for any related disease condition that could prejudice the results. Blood samples were analysed for the values of total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, serum malondialdehyde, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, glutathione peroxidase and ceruloplasmin. Results: There were 180 children in the study; 90(50%) cases and 90(50%) controls. Of the cases, 48(53.3%) were under-weight while the weight of 42(46.7%) was in the normal range. The values of total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity were significantly (p<0.01) higher in thalassaemic children compared to normal values. Serum malondialdehyde and catalase levels were also considerably elevated (p<0.05), suggesting the increased activity of these enzymes. However, the concentrations of serum paraoxonase, arylesterase, glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p<0.01) lower in cases than the controls, displaying diminished activities during multiple blood transfusions in these patients. Conclusion: Multiple blood transfusions disconcert the levels of oxidants, antioxidants and serum enzymes of thalassaemic children. Oxidative damage is seen because of the increased iron overload in these patients. Hence, regular evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status should bemonitored in thalassaemic patients during initial few years of life. © 2015, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Wasiq M.F.,BahauddinZakariya University | Nadeem M.Y.,BahauddinZakariya University | Mahmood K.,The University of Faisalabad | Warsi M.F.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Khan M.A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2015

In this paper, we have grown an 80 nm thick Gd2O3 thin film by electron beam evaporation on glass substrate and fabricated different metal (Al, Cu, Cr and Au) electrodes on grown sample under same condition. To investigate the charge transport mechanism in these metal-semiconductor systems, the electrical conductivities and current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been measured over temperature range of 250-400 K. We have found that Mott variable range hopping (VRH) is responsible for conduction behavior in all systems for entire temperature range. A strong correlation between transport properties and metal work function has been observed. A space charge model successfully explained the decreasing trend of conductivity with increasing the metal work function. The conductivity decreased from 2.9 × 10-5 to 1.8 × 10-11 S/cm as the metal work function increased from 4 to 5.1 eV for Al to Au metals respectively. The ideality factor also increased from 1.67 to 2.2 with metal work function from Al to Au metal. The observed result can be explained as; high work function metal forms higher depletion layer as compared to metal having low work function, which compensate the empty sites available for hopping and consequently decreased the hopping conductivity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Hakeem A.,Govtpost Graduate College Jampur | Shakoor A.,BahauddinZakariya University | Irfan M.,BahauddinZakariya University | Ali I.,BahauddinZakariya University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ovonic Research | Year: 2014

The alternate current (ac) and direct current (dc) electrical conductivity of polypyrrole doped with strontium hexaferritecompositehas been investigated at different temperatures in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz.A conducting polymer, Polypyrrole wassynthesizedbychemical polymerization method and doped with dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (PPy-DBSA). Y-type hexagonal ferrite Zn2Sr2Fe12O22was prepared bynormalmicroemulsion route. Composite was prepared by mixing the Zn2Sr2Fe12O22with already synthesized conducting polymer PPy-DBSA by 1:1 molar ratio. Phase analysis was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing heterogonous distribution of grains. The experimental results showed that the DC electrical conductivity of the composite increased with increasing temperature more rapidly as compared to that of pristine polypyrrole. Activation energy, density of states and hopping length were calculated and found to be influenced by adding ferrites. AC electrical conductivity of the composite are changed with temperature and frequency of applied electric field. © 2014,Journal of Ovonic Research. Source

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