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Multan, Pakistan

Bahauddin Zakariya University is located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the Largest university of South Punjab. Bahauddin Zakariya University was formerly known as Multan University. It was renamed in honor of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya. It is a degree awarding institute in more than 60 subjects, including pharmacy, medical, engineering, humanities, business administration, law, art, music, IT Agriculture and languages. The university is currently ranked at No. 3 in General Category Ranking of 2012 by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan Wikipedia.

Butt M.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Sultan M.T.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Recent research has rejuvenated centuries-old traditional herbs to cure various ailments by usingmodern tools like diet-based therapy and other regimens. Ginger is one of the classic examples of an herb used for not only culinary preparations but also for unique therapeutic significance owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential. The pungent fractions of ginger, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and volatile constituents like sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, are mainly attributed to the health-enhancing perspectives of ginger. This review elucidates the health claims of ginger and the molecular aspects and targets, with special reference to anticancer perspectives, immunonutrition, antioxidant potential, and cardiovascular cure. The molecular targets involved in chemoprevention like the inhibition of NF-κB activation via impairing nuclear translocation, suppresses cIAP1 expression, increases caspase-3/7 activation, arrests cell cycle in G2 + M phases, up-regulates Cytochrome-c, Apaf-1, activates PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK, suppresses cell proliferation, and inducts apoptosis and chromatin condensation. Similarly, facts are presented regarding the anti-inflammatory response of ginger components and molecular targets including inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis and suppression of 5- lipoxygenase. Furthermore, inhibition of phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also discussed. The role of ginger in reducing the extent of cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, and digestive problems has also been described in detail. Although, current review articles summarized the literature pertaining to ginger and its components. However, authors are still of the view that further research should be immediately carried out for meticulousness. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shad S.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

The house fly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their management. In the present study, we investigated the genetics of spinosad resistance, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides by selecting a field strain with a commercial spinosad formulation. Bioassays with the field strain, before selection with spinosad, gave resistance ratios (RRs) of 4, 5, 66, 21 and 5 fold for spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, imidacloprid and deltamethrin, respectively, in comparison to a laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain. After continuous selection of the field strain (Spin-SEL) with spinosad, the RR was increased up to 155 fold; however, the resistance was unstable (RR decreased 1.43 fold) when this strain was not exposed to spinosad for five generations. The Spin-SEL strain did not show cross-resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb or deltamethrin, but showed negative cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Crosses between the Spin-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to spinosad. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model based on Chi-square analysis revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one gene. Moreover, the resistance was neither overcome with the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide nor with S,. S,. S-tributylphosphorotrithioate. Lack of cross-resistance and instability of resistance suggest that rotation with spinosad could be an effective resistance management strategy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Akhtar S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Sarker M.R.,University of Oregon | Hossain A.,Hail University
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Akhtar S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65μg/dL for males and females aged <10 years, 66μg/dL for non-pregnant females, and 70μg/dL for males aged ≥10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Source

Khan M.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Parallel Computing | Year: 2012

A complex computing problem may be efficiently solved on a system with multiple processing elements by dividing its implementation code into several tasks or modules that execute in parallel. The modules may then be assigned to and scheduled on the processing elements so that the total execution time is minimum. Finding an optimal schedule for parallel programs is a non-trivial task and is considered to be NP-complete. For heterogeneous systems having processors with different characteristics, most of the scheduling algorithms use greedy approach to assign processors to the modules. This paper suggests a novel approach called constrained earliest finish time (CEFT) to provide better schedules for heterogeneous systems using the concept of the constrained critical paths (CCPs). In contrast to other approaches used for heterogeneous systems, the CEFT strategy takes into account a broader view of the input task graph. Furthermore, the statically generated CCPs may be efficiently scheduled in comparison with other approaches. The experimentation results show that the CEFT scheduling strategy outperforms the well-known HEFT, DLS and LMT strategies by producing shorter schedules for a diverse collection of task graphs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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