Bahauddin Zakariya University
Multan, Pakistan

Bahauddin Zakariya University is located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the Largest university of South Punjab. Bahauddin Zakariya University was formerly known as Multan University. It was renamed in honor of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya. It is a degree awarding institute in more than 60 subjects, including pharmacy, medical, engineering, humanities, business administration, law, art, music, IT Agriculture and languages. The university is currently ranked at No. 3 in General Category Ranking of 2012 by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan Wikipedia.

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Hanif M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Chohan Z.H.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2- carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Butt M.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Sultan M.T.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Recent research has rejuvenated centuries-old traditional herbs to cure various ailments by usingmodern tools like diet-based therapy and other regimens. Ginger is one of the classic examples of an herb used for not only culinary preparations but also for unique therapeutic significance owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential. The pungent fractions of ginger, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and volatile constituents like sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, are mainly attributed to the health-enhancing perspectives of ginger. This review elucidates the health claims of ginger and the molecular aspects and targets, with special reference to anticancer perspectives, immunonutrition, antioxidant potential, and cardiovascular cure. The molecular targets involved in chemoprevention like the inhibition of NF-κB activation via impairing nuclear translocation, suppresses cIAP1 expression, increases caspase-3/7 activation, arrests cell cycle in G2 + M phases, up-regulates Cytochrome-c, Apaf-1, activates PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK, suppresses cell proliferation, and inducts apoptosis and chromatin condensation. Similarly, facts are presented regarding the anti-inflammatory response of ginger components and molecular targets including inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis and suppression of 5- lipoxygenase. Furthermore, inhibition of phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also discussed. The role of ginger in reducing the extent of cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, and digestive problems has also been described in detail. Although, current review articles summarized the literature pertaining to ginger and its components. However, authors are still of the view that further research should be immediately carried out for meticulousness. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shad S.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

The house fly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their management. In the present study, we investigated the genetics of spinosad resistance, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides by selecting a field strain with a commercial spinosad formulation. Bioassays with the field strain, before selection with spinosad, gave resistance ratios (RRs) of 4, 5, 66, 21 and 5 fold for spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, imidacloprid and deltamethrin, respectively, in comparison to a laboratory susceptible (Lab-susceptible) strain. After continuous selection of the field strain (Spin-SEL) with spinosad, the RR was increased up to 155 fold; however, the resistance was unstable (RR decreased 1.43 fold) when this strain was not exposed to spinosad for five generations. The Spin-SEL strain did not show cross-resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb or deltamethrin, but showed negative cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Crosses between the Spin-SEL and Lab-susceptible strains revealed an autosomal and incomplete dominant mode of resistance to spinosad. A direct test using a monogenic inheritance model based on Chi-square analysis revealed that the resistance was governed by more than one gene. Moreover, the resistance was neither overcome with the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide nor with S,. S,. S-tributylphosphorotrithioate. Lack of cross-resistance and instability of resistance suggest that rotation with spinosad could be an effective resistance management strategy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Akhtar S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Sarker M.R.,University of Oregon | Hossain A.,Hail University
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the life style of the population in the developing world. Socioeconomic status of the population in poorer economies is one of the major determinants to delineate the availability of safe food to the vulnerable population. Assessment of the prevalence of foodborne illness in developing world is the most neglected area to control disease. Botulism, Shigellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Escherichia coli infection, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Salmonellosis, Listeriosis and Cholerae are extensively prevalent and pose a major threat to human health in underdeveloped communities. The existing food safety status of many African, South Asian, Central, and South American developing countries is distressing therefore; it seems much timely to highlight the areas for the improvement to ensure the supply of safe food to the population in these regions. Extensive literature search at PubMed, Science Direct and Medline was carried out during the current year to catch on relevant data from 1976 to date, using selective terms like food safety, South East Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and foodborne illness etc. Efforts were made to restrict the search to low income countries of these regions with reference to specific foodborne pathogens. This report briefly discusses the present food safety situation in these developing countries and associated consequences as prime issues, suggesting foodborne illness to be the most distressing threat for human health and economic growth. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Qadir M.I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases.

Akhtar S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65μg/dL for males and females aged <10 years, 66μg/dL for non-pregnant females, and 70μg/dL for males aged ≥10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Butt M.S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Sultan M.T.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Coffee is the leading worldwide beverage after water and its trade exceedsUS $10 billion worldwide. Controversies regarding its benefits and risks still exist as reliable evidence is becoming available supporting its health promoting potential; however, some researchers have argued about the association of coffee consumption with cardiovascular complications and cancer insurgence. The health-promoting properties of coffee are often attributed to its rich phytochemistry, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), etc.Many research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses regarding coffee consumption revealed its inverse correlation with that of diabetes mellitus, various cancer lines, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, it ameliorates oxidative stress because of its ability to induce mRNA and protein expression, and mediates Nrf2-ARE pathway stimulation. Furthermore, caffeine and its metabolites help in proper cognitive functionality. Coffee lipid fraction containing cafestol and kahweol act as a safeguard against some malignant cells by modulating the detoxifying enzymes. On the other hand, their higher levels raise serum cholesterol, posing a possible threat to coronary health, for example, myocardial and cerebral infarction, insomnia, and cardiovascular complications. Caffeine also affects adenosine receptors and its withdrawal is accompanied with muscle fatigue and allied problems in those addicted to coffee. An array of evidence showed that pregnant women or those with postmenopausal problems should avoid excessive consumption of coffee because of its interference with oral contraceptives or postmenopausal hormones. This review article is an attempt to disseminate general information, health claims, and obviously the risk factors associated with coffee consumption to scientists, allied stakeholders, and certainly readers. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Khan M.A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Parallel Computing | Year: 2012

A complex computing problem may be efficiently solved on a system with multiple processing elements by dividing its implementation code into several tasks or modules that execute in parallel. The modules may then be assigned to and scheduled on the processing elements so that the total execution time is minimum. Finding an optimal schedule for parallel programs is a non-trivial task and is considered to be NP-complete. For heterogeneous systems having processors with different characteristics, most of the scheduling algorithms use greedy approach to assign processors to the modules. This paper suggests a novel approach called constrained earliest finish time (CEFT) to provide better schedules for heterogeneous systems using the concept of the constrained critical paths (CCPs). In contrast to other approaches used for heterogeneous systems, the CEFT strategy takes into account a broader view of the input task graph. Furthermore, the statically generated CCPs may be efficiently scheduled in comparison with other approaches. The experimentation results show that the CEFT scheduling strategy outperforms the well-known HEFT, DLS and LMT strategies by producing shorter schedules for a diverse collection of task graphs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hussain Z.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

The paper presents results of an application of the L-moments based regional flood frequency analysis to annual maximum peak (AMP) flows observed at seven stations (Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri) located on the main stream of the Indus River, Pakistan. The results of Run-test and lag-1 correlation coefficient showed that the data series at given sites is random and has no serious serial correlations respectively. Furthermore, the results of Grubbs and Beck test illustrated that there are no irregularities (abrupt variations) except low outlier(s) in the data series at various sites. To avoid their undue influence, these low outliers have been discarded and the sample information has been re-summarized using the idea of left censored type A′ partial probability weighted moments. L-moments based regional heterogeneity measure (H) showed that the region, defined by seven stations, is heterogeneous; therefore, it has been sub-divided into two homogeneous regions (Region 1 and Region 2 consist of four (Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma and Taunsa) and three sites (Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri, respectively) using Ward's clustering method based on the site characteristics only. The results of various goodness-of-fit measures (L-moment ratio diagram, average weighted distance and ZDIST measures) showed that Region 1 has four candidates: generalized normal (GNO), generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme-value (GEV) and Pearson type III (PE3), while Region 2 has only one candidate; GLO, as regional distribution. Based on the results of different accuracy measures (regional average absolute relative bias, relative bias and relative root mean square error) of the estimated regional growth curves and quantiles, obtained from simulation experiments, PE3 is the robust distribution for Region 1, while for Region 2, GLO distribution can be used for the estimation of flood quantiles. Moreover, the results of the simulations study have been extended to obtain standard errors of the estimated quantiles at each site of the sub-divided homogeneous regions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Muhammad Siddique, MD, Internist, to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. He is a highly trained and qualified internist with a vast expertise in all facets of his work, especially hematology, oncology, and internal medicine. Dr. Siddique has been in practice for more than 20 years and is currently serving patients at 21st Century Oncology in Seaford, Delaware. Dr. Muhammad Siddique received his Medical Degree from the Nishtar Medical College of Bahauddin Zakariya University in Multan in Pakistan. After moving to the United States, he completed an internship and residency in 2004 and 2005. Dr. Siddique is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in both Internal Medicine and in Hematology and Oncology. He maintains a professional membership with the American Society of Hematology, and attributes his success to the support of his parents, along with his determination and love for helping people. When he is not working, Dr. Siddique enjoys dining out, spending time with his family, and being outdoors. Learn more about Dr. Siddique by reading his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review. features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit

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