Badger Technical Services

San Antonio, TX, United States

Badger Technical Services

San Antonio, TX, United States
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Vasudevan R.,University of Florida | Kennedy A.J.,U.S. Army | Merritt M.,Badger Technical Services | Merritt M.,Emory University | And 2 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

Microscale patterned surfaces have been shown to control the arrangement of bacteria attached to surfaces. This study was conducted to examine the effect of patterned topographies on bacterial fouling using Enterobacter cloacae as the test model. E. cloacae is an opportunistic pathogen involved frequently in nosocomial infections. It is an important model organism to be studied in the context of healthcare associated infections (HAI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based urinary catheter fouling. Patterned surfaces, such as Sharklet™, have shown the promise of being a benign surface treatment for prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). To the best of our knowledge, inhibition of fouling by E. cloacae has not been demonstrated on microscale patterned PDMS surfaces. In this study, the Sharklet™ and smooth PDMS surfaces were used as controls. All pattern surfaces had statistically significantly lower percentage area coverage compared to the smooth PDMS control. A cross type feature (C-1-PDMS), demonstrated the most significant reduction in percent area coverage, 89% ( p<. 0.01, α= 0.05), compared to the smooth PDMS control and all other patterned test surfaces. Additionally, theoretical calculations show that C-1-PDMS is the only surface predicted to hold the thermodynamically stable Cassie state, which occurs due to trapping air pockets at the liquid-solid interface. Combined the results provide new insights for designing environmentally benign, novel, microscale patterned surfaces for restricting bacterial fouling. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ahmad R.,Vanderbilt University | Chaturvedi R.,Vanderbilt University | Olivares-Villagomez D.,Vanderbilt University | Habib T.,Badger Technical Services | And 9 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

Expression of claudin-2, a tight junction protein, is highly upregulated during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and, due to its association with epithelial permeability, has been postulated to promote inflammation. Notably, claudin-2 has also been implicated in the regulation of intestinal epithelial proliferation. However, precise role of claudin-2 in regulating colonic homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate, using Villin-Claudin-2 transgenic mice, that increased colonic claudin-2 expression augments mucosal permeability as well as colon and crypt length. Most notably, despite leaky colon, Cl-2TG mice were significantly protected against experimental colitis. Importantly, claudin-2 expression increased colonocyte proliferation and provided protection against colitis-induced colonocyte death in a PI-3Kinase/Bcl-2-dependent manner. However, Cl-2TG mice also demonstrated marked suppression of colitis-induced increases in immune activation and associated signaling, suggesting immune tolerance. Accordingly, colons from naive Cl-2TG mice harbored significantly increased numbers of regulatory (CD4+ Foxp3+) T cells than WT littermates. Furthermore, macrophages isolated from Cl-2TG mouse colon exhibited immune anergy. Importantly, these immunosuppressive changes were associated with increased synthesis of the immunoregulatory cytokine TGF-β by colonic epithelial cells in Cl-2TG mice compared with WT littermates. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical albeit complex role of claudin-2 in intestinal homeostasis by regulating epithelial permeability, inflammation and proliferation and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


Isayev O.,Case Western Reserve University | Isayev O.,U.S. Army | Crespo-Hernandez C.E.,Case Western Reserve University | Gorb L.,Badger Technical Services | And 3 more authors.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Reduction, catalyzed by the bacterial nitroreductases, is the quintessential first step in the biodegradation of a variety of nitroaromatic compounds from contaminated waters and soil. The Enterobacter cloacae nitroreductase (EcNR) enzyme is considered as a prospective biotechnological tool for bioremediation of hazardous nitroaromatic compounds. Using diverse computational methods, we obtain insights into the structural basis of activity and mechanism of its function. We have performed molecular dynamics simulation of EcNR in three different states (free EcNR in oxidized form, fully reduced EcNR with benzoate inhibitor and fully reduced EcNR with nitrobenzene) in explicit solvent and with full electrostatics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the variance-covariance matrix showed that the complexed nitroreductase becomes more flexible overall upon complexation, particularly helix H6, in the vicinity of the binding site. A multiple sequence alignment was also constructed in order to examine positional constraints on substitution in EcNR. Five regions which are highly conserved within the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site were identified. Obtained results and their implications for EcNR functioning are discussed, and new plausible mechanism has been proposed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Vakula N.I.,Moscow State University | Kuramshina G.M.,Moscow State University | Gorb L.G.,Badger Technical Services | Hill F.,U.S. Army | Leszczynski J.,Jackson State University
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2013

By employing DFT approaches we studied the adsorption of a single Ag atom and its cation on different sites of a pure α-quartz (0 0 1) surface and on an α-quartz (0 0 1) surface containing an Al defect. The energetically different adsorption sites of Ag and Ag+ were revealed and the profiles of diffusion were calculated. Diffusion of an Ag atom through the pure α-quartz surface is predicted to have a much lower barrier than an Ag cation. However in case of diffusion through the α-quartz surface with an Al defect the barriers are almost the same for both cation and neutral Ag. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Russell A.L.,Badger Technical Services | Seiter J.M.,U.S. Army | Coleman J.G.,U.S. Army | Winstead B.,BAE Systems | Bednar A.J.,U.S. Army
Talanta | Year: 2014

The use of Insensitive Munitions eXplosives (IMX) is increasing as the Army seeks to replace certain conventional munitions constituents, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotolene (TNT), for improved safety. The IMX formulations are more stable and therefore less prone to accidental detonation while designed to match the performance of legacy materials. Two formulations, IMX 101 and 104 are being investigated as a replacement for TNT in artillery rounds and composition B Army mortars, respectively. The chemical formulations of IMX-101 and 104 are comprised of four constituents;2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol- 5-one (NTO), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ), and Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) which are mixed in various ratios to achieve the desired performance. The current work details the analysis of the IMX constituents by single column HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. Detection limits determined are in agreement with similar HPLC analysis of compounds, ranging from 7 to 9 μg/L. Gradient mobile phases are used to allow separation of the 4 target compounds in more complex mixture of other concomitant compounds. Mass spectra are used to confirm analyte identity with chromatographic retention time. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Garcia-Reyero N.,Mississippi State University | Ekman D.R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Habib T.,Badger Technical Services | Villeneuve D.L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 4 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is a key enzyme in estradiol synthesis that catalyzes the aromatization of androgens into estrogens in ovaries. Here, we used an integrated approach to assess the mechanistic basis of the direct effects of aromatase inhibition, as well as adaptation and recovery processes in fish. We exposed female fathead minnows (. Pimephales promelas) via the water to 30. μg/L of a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, during 8. days (exposure phase). Fish were then held in clean water for 8 more days (recovery phase). Samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 8. days of both the exposure and the recovery phases. Transcriptomics, metabolomics, and network inference were used to understand changes and infer connections at the transcript and metabolite level in the ovary. Apical endpoints directly indicative of endocrine function, such as plasma estradiol, testosterone, and vitellogenin levels were also measured. An integrated analysis of the data revealed changes in gene expression consistent with increased testosterone in fadrozole-exposed ovaries. Metabolites such as glycogen and taurine were strongly correlated with increased testosterone levels. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo steroidogenesis data suggested the accumulation of steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, as a mechanism to compensate for aromatase inhibition. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Bednar A.J.,U.S. Army | Poda A.R.,U.S. Army | Mitrano D.M.,Colorado School of Mines | Kennedy A.J.,U.S. Army | And 5 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2013

Characterization of nanomaterials must include analysis of both size and chemical composition. Many analytical techniques, such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), are capable of measuring the size of suspended nanometer-sized particles, yet provide no information on the composition of the particle. While field flow fractionation (FFF) is a powerful nanoparticle sizing technique, common detectors used in conjunction with the size separation, including UV, light-scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy, do not provide the needed particle compositional information. Further, these detectors do not respond directly to the mass concentration of nanoparticles. The present work describes the advantages achieved when interfacing sensitive and elemental specific detectors, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, to FFF separation analysis to provide high resolution nanoparticle sizing and compositional analysis at the μg/L concentration level, a detection at least 10-100-fold lower than DLS or FFF-UV techniques. The full benefits are only achieved by utilization of all detector capabilities, such as dynamic reaction cell (DRC) ICP-MS. Such low-level detection and characterization capability is critical to nanomaterial investigations at biologically and environmentally relevant concentrations. The techniques have been modified and applied to characterization of all four elemental constituents of cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide core-shell quantum dots, and silver nanoparticles with gold seed cores. Additionally, sulfide coatings on silver nanoparticles can be detected as a potential means to determine environmental aging of nanoparticles.


Wilbanks M.S.,U.S. Army | Gust K.A.,U.S. Army | Atwa S.,University of Louisiana at Monroe | Sunesara I.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2014

2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is a nitroaromatic used in industrial dyes and explosives manufacturing processes that is found as a contaminant in the environment. Previous studies have implicated antagonism of PPARα signaling as a principal process affected by 2,4-DNT. Here, we test the hypothesis that 2,4-DNT-induced perturbations in PPARα signaling and resultant downstream deficits in energy metabolism, especially from lipids, cause organism-level impacts on exercise endurance. PPAR nuclear activation bioassays demonstrated inhibition of PPARα signaling by 2,4-DNT whereas PPARγ signaling increased. PPARα (-/-) and wild-type (WT) female mice were exposed for 14 days to vehicle or 2,4-DNT (134 mg/kg/day) and performed a forced swim to exhaustion 1 day after the last dose. 2,4-DNT significantly decreased body weights and swim times in WTs, but effects were significantly mitigated in PPARα (-/-) mice. 2,4-DNT decreased transcript expression for genes downstream in the PPARα signaling pathway, principally genes involved in fatty acid transport. Results indicate that PPARγ signaling increased resulting in enhanced cycling of lipid and carbohydrate substrates into glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathways favoring energy production versus storage in 2,4-DNT-exposed WT and PPARα (-/-) mice. PPARα (-/-) mice appear to have compensated for the loss of PPARα by shifting energy metabolism to PPARα-independent pathways resulting in lower sensitivity to 2,4-DNT when compared with WT mice. Our results validate 2,4-DNT-induced perturbation of PPARα signaling as the molecular initiating event for impaired energy metabolism, weight loss, and decreased exercise performance.


Stanley J.K.,U.S. Army | Lotufo G.R.,U.S. Army | Biedenbach J.M.,U.S. Army | Chappell P.,Badger Technical Services | Gust K.A.,U.S. Army
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015

An initiative within the US military is targeting the replacement of traditional munitions constituents with insensitive munitions to reduce risk of accidental detonation. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess toxicity of the traditional munitions constituents 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) with the new insensitive munitions constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO). The following exposure durations were performed with Rana pipiens (leopard frog) tadpoles: TNT and DNAN, 96h and 28d; RDX, 10 d and 28d; NTO, 28 d. The 96-h 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values and 95% confidence intervals for TNT and DNAN were 4.4mg/L (4.2mg/L, 4. 7mg/L) and 24.3mg/L (21.3mg/L, 27.6mg/L), respectively. No significant impacts on survival were observed in the 10-d exposure to RDX up to 25.3mg/L. Effects on tadpole swimming distance were observed with a lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of 5.9mg/L RDX. In the 28-d exposures, the LOECs for survival for TNT, DNAN, and NTO were 0.003mg/L, 2.4mg/L, and 5.0mg/L, respectively. No significant mortality was observed in the RDX chronic 28-d exposure up to the highest treatment level tested of 28.0mg/L. Neither tadpole developmental stage nor growth was significantly affected in any of the 28-d exposures. Rana pipiens were very sensitive to chronic TNT exposure, with an LOEC 3 orders of magnitude lower than those for insensitive munitions constituents DNAN and NTO. © 2015 SETAC.


Lotufo G.R.,U.S. Army | Biedenbach J.M.,U.S. Army | Sims J.G.,U.S. Army | Chappell P.,Badger Technical Services | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015

The manufacturing of explosives and their loading, assembling, and packing into munitions for use in testing on training sites or battlefields has resulted in contamination of terrestrial and aquatic sites that may pose risk to populations of sensitive species. The bioaccumulative potential of the conventional explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and of the insensitive munitions (i.e., less shock sensitive) compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) were assessed using the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Trinitrotoluene entering the organism was readily biotransformed to aminodinitrotoluenes, whereas no transformation products were measured for RDX or DNAN. Uptake clearance rates were relatively slow and similar among compounds (1.32-2.19L kg-1 h-1). Upon transfer to uncontaminated water, elimination rate was very fast, resulting in the prediction of fast time to approach steady state (5h or less) and short elimination half-lives (1.2h or less). A preliminary bioconcentration factor of 0.25L kg-1 was determined for the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-trizole-5-one (NTO) indicating negligible bioaccumulative potential. Because of the rapid elimination rate for explosives, tadpoles inhabiting contaminated areas are expected to experience harmful effects only if under constant exposure conditions given that body burdens can rapidly depurate preventing tissue concentrations from persisting at levels that may cause detrimental biological effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:880-886. © 2014 SETAC.

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