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Faber M.S.,Robert Koch Institute | Ulrich R.G.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Frank C.,Robert Koch Institute | Brockmann S.O.,State Health Office Baden Wurttemberg | And 4 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

From January to April 2010, 396 hantavirus infections were notified in Germany, a considerable increase compared with previous years (mean: 83 for January-April 2004-2009) including the record-setting year, 2007 (n=232 January-April). Most patients are residents of known Puumala virus endemic areas in southern Germany. The recent increase in notified hantavirus infections is probably due to an increased population density of the main animal reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus).

Collatz J.,University of Hohenheim | Selzer P.,University of Hohenheim | Fuhrmann A.,University of Hohenheim | Oehme R.M.,State Health Office Baden Wurttemberg | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2011

The parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri parasitizes hard ticks and is therefore considered as a potential candidate for biological control of ticks. However, there are still considerable gaps of knowledge about the biology of I.hookeri, especially for European populations. Thus, the present study was performed to assess important life-history parameters of the parasitoid in Germany. Field studies accomplished in three successive years revealed that unfed Ixodes ricinus nymphs are infested by the parasitoid at a low but constant rate of 1.9-3.8% and that adult wasps are present only during a short period in late summer. The mean developmental time of wasps in I. ricinus nymphs ranged from 28 to 70days under constant laboratory conditions and was prolonged in the second half of the year. Bioassays on parasitization and host preference behaviour showed that unfed nymphs of the host species I. ricinus are significantly preferred in experiments, in which unfed and engorged larvae as well as fully engorged nymphs were offered as alternatives. The marsh tick Dermacentor reticulatus was not accepted as an alternative host. Our data show that the investigated I.hookeri populations differ markedly from populations in other regions of the world in many aspects. The adaptation of different strains to local conditions explains the limited success of imported strains in earlier biological control attempts and highlights the importance of doing research to enhance the control potential of native strains. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

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