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Stuttgart Mühlhausen, Germany

Fetsch A.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Contzen M.,Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt CVUA Stuttgart | Hartelt K.,State Health Office Baden Wuerttemberg | Kleiser A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Dinkel A.,University of Hohenheim | Kern S.,University of Hohenheim | Brinker A.,University of Hohenheim | Oehme R.,State Health Office Baden Wuerttemberg | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

A hybridization probe-based real-time multiplex-nested PCR system was developed for the simultaneous detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and host species directly from faecal samples. Species identification was determined by melting curve analysis. Specificity was assessed by using DNA extracted from various cestodes (E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus (G1), Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis (G6, G7), Taenia crassiceps, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia mustelae, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia serialis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Mesocestoides leptothylacus), carnivores (Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Martes foina), Microtus arvalis and Arvicola terrestris. The analytical sensitivity was 10 fg, evaluated with serially diluted DNA of E. multilocularis to 10 μl total DNA solution from E. multilocularis-negative canid faeces. Based on a comparison of 47 dog samples from China, the proportion of the E. multilocularis-positive- tested samples by the real-time multiplex-nested PCR was moderately higher (38% vs. 30%) as when tested with a previously evaluated nested PCR with a sensitivity of 70-100%, depending on the number and gravidity status of worms present in the intestine (Dinkel et al., J Clin Microbiol 36:1871-1876, 1998). To assess the epidemiological applicability of this method, 227 canid faecal samples collected in the field were analysed. This newly developed real-time multiplex-nested PCR system is a specific, sensitive and reliable method for the detection of E. multilocularis and host species in faecal samples for epidemiological purposes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Collatz J.,University of Hohenheim | Fuhrmann A.,University of Hohenheim | Selzer P.,University of Hohenheim | Oehme R.M.,State Health Office Baden Wuerttemberg | And 5 more authors.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

The parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitizes larvae and nymphs of a number of tick species worldwide. Ticks themselves are parasitic on vertebrate hosts. To study the specificity and reliability of vertebrate odours used by I. hookeri for host location, we conducted bioassays in a four-chamber olfactometer. Wasps were arrested by carbon dioxide and by odours from roe deer faeces and odours from hair of roe deer and wild boar. Odours from faeces of cattle, rabbit, and field mouse as well as odours from hair of cattle and field mouse had no effect. Odours from faeces of the host tick species Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) were attractive only up to a distance of 1 cm. Thus, I. hookeri reacts to general (carbon dioxide) and specific vertebrate odours from wild boar and deer. Examination of freshly shot specimens demonstrates that deer and wild boars are infested with a sufficient number of tick nymphs to tap the full reproductive potential of an I. hookeri female, which makes cues from these mammal species reliable. These results indicate that I. hookeri locates its hosts using specific and reliable mammal odours and that ticks are parasitized on their vertebrate hosts. The implications of this host-finding strategy and its benefits for the parasitoid are discussed. © 2009 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

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