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Sicras-Mainar A.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA | Navarro-Artieda R.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal | Year: 2015

Background: To evaluate resource use and health costs due to the combination of metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in patients with diabetes and renal impairment in routine clinical practice. Methods: An observational, retrospective study was performed. Patients aged ≥30 years treated with metformin who initiated a second oral antidiabetic treatment in 2009 to 2010 were included. Two groups of patients were analysed: metformin+DPP-4 inhibitors and other oral antidiabetics. The main measures were: compliance, persistence, metabolic control (glycosylated hemoglobin<7%) and complications (hypoglycemia, cardiovascular events) and total costs. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results: We included 395 patients, mean age 70.2 years, 56.5% male: 135 patients received metformin+DPP-4 inhibitors and 260 patients received metformin+other oral antidiabetics. Patients receiving DPP-4 inhibitors showed better compliance (66.0% vs. 60.1%), persistence (57.6% vs. 50.0%), and metabolic control (63.9% vs. 57.3%), respectively, compared with those receiving other oral antidiabetics (P<0.05), and also had a lower rate of hypoglycemia (20.0% vs. 47.7%) and lower total costs (€ 2,486 vs. € 3,002), P=0.001. Conclusion: Despite the limitations of the study, patients with renal impairment treated with DPP-4 inhibitors had better metabolic control, lower rates (association) of hypoglycaemia, and lower health costs for the Spanish national health system. © 2015 Korean Diabetes Association.


Sicras-Mainar A.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA | Navarro-Artieda R.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol | Ibanez-Nolla J.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA
Revista Clinica Espanola | Year: 2014

Objectives Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is usually accompanied by various comorbidities that can increase the cost of treatment. We are not aware of studies that have determined the costs associated with treating DM2 patients with co-morbidities such as overweight (OW), obesity (OBE) or arterial hypertension (AHT). The aim of the study was to examine the health-related costs and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these patients. Patients and methods Multicenter, observational retrospective design. We included patients 40-99 years of age who requested medical attention in 2010 in Badalona (Barcelona, Spain). There were two study groups: those with DM2 and without DM2 (reference group/control), and six subgroups: DM2-only, DM2-AHT, DM2-OW, DM2-OBE; DM2-AHT-OW and DM2-AHT-OBE. The main outcome measures were: co-morbidity, metabolic syndrome (MS), complications (hypoglycemia, CVD) and costs (health and non-health). Follow-up was carried out for two years. Results A total of 26,845 patients were recruited. The prevalence of DM2 was 14.0%. Subjects with DM2 were older (67.8 vs. 59.7 years) and more were men (51.3 vs. 43.0%), P<.001. DM2 status was associated primarily with OBE (OR=2.8, CI=2.4-3.1), AHT (OR=2.4, CI=2.2-2.6) and OW (OR=1.9, CI=1.7-2.2). The distribution by subgroups was: 6.7% of patients had only DM2, 26.1% had DM2, AHT and OW, and 34.1% had DM2, AHT, and OBE. Some 75.4% had MS and 37.5% reported an episode of hypoglycemia. The total cost/patient with DM2 was €4,458. By subgroups the costs were as follows: DM2: €3,431; DM2-AHT: €4,075; DM2-OW: €4,057; DM2-OBE: €4,915; DM2-AHT-OW: €4,203 and DM2-AHT-OBE: €5,021, P<.001. The CVD rate among patients with DM2 was 4.7 vs. 1.7% in those without DM2 P<.001. Conclusions Obesity is a comorbidity associated with DM2 that leads to greater healthcare costs than AHT. The presence of these comorbidities causes increased rates of CVD.


Objective: To determine therapeutic compliance when brand name amlodipine and simvastatin are substituted for generic drugs, and to determine patients' and physicians' opinions of this substitution. Patients and methods: We performed an observational study with a control group, based on a review of the medical records in six primary care centers. Participants consisted of patients≥40 years old initiating treatment with a brand name drug (initial period), which was later substituted by a generic drug (final period). The study subgroups consisted of patients with hypertension (amlodipine) or dyslipidemia (simvastatin). The main measures were comorbidity, compliance, treatment length, biochemistry determinations, and patients' and physicians' opinions (interviews). All patients received a brand name drug for a minimum of 1 year followed by a generic drug for a minimum of 1 year (minimum continuation/patient: 24 months). Results: There were 1,252 patients (groups: 49.5% amlodipine; 50.5% simvastatin). Patients treated with amlodipine (period comparison) showed better compliance (65.8 vs. 61.3%; p=0.037) and blood pressure control (48.5 vs. 45.8%; p=0.039) with the brand name drug. The percentages with simvastatin were 62.8 vs. 58.4% (p=0.041), respectively. A total of 73.6% of the physicians interviewed prescribed generic drugs and 59.2% believed that both types of drug had the same efficacy. Most of the patients interviewed (79.8%; CI: 74.3-85.3%) accepted the substitution; 55.3% (CI: 48.5-62.1%) received the appropriate information but 61.5% were confused by the different products. Lack of compliance was reported by 18.2%. Conclusions: In patients receiving amlodipine or simvastatin, compliance decreased with time, independently of the change from a band name to a generic drug. © 2010 SESPAS.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-21-2016 | Award Amount: 7.07M | Year: 2017

ImpleMentAll will develop, apply, and evaluate tailored implementation strategies in the context of on-going eHealth implementation initiatives in the EU and beyond. Common mental health disorders account for an alarming proportion of the global burden of disease. Being regarded as an evidence-based psychotherapeutic eHealth intervention, Internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT), has the potential to answer to this societal challenge by providing an efficacious and efficient treatment from which more people can benefit. As a result, various iCBT implementation projects are currently conducted across the world. We propose to use this natural laboratory to develop and evaluate a toolkit for tailored implementation strategies that is expected to make implementation trajectories more efficient. The objectives for ImpleMentAll are: 1) To develop a generic Integrated Theory-based Framework for Intervention Tailoring Strategies (the ItFits-toolkit) for data-driven tailored implementation of evidence-based eHealth services. 2) To demonstrate the impact of the ItFits toolkit on the implementation of eHealth for common mental disorders, in 9 European countries, 2 LMIC, and Australia. 3) To disseminate the validated toolkit in various healthcare contexts across Europe. ImpleMentAll is a true multidisciplinary international collaboration that unites key experts in clinical practice, health innovation, clinical research, and implementation science. Combined with its unique setup, ImpleMentAll will be able to test if tailoring implementation strategies lead to more efficient implementation. The resulting ItFits-toolkit will enable data driven evaluation of eHealth implementation projects in terms key performance indicators for process, effectiveness, and efficiency outcomes. Its methods, materials, and strategies will provide concrete guidance on tuning implementation interventions to local determinant of practice across a variety of health care systems.


Sicras-Mainar A.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA | Navarro-Artieda R.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol | Ibanez-Nolla J.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA
Reumatologia Clinica | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the use of resources and economic impact of patients with gout at the population level. Patients and methods: Observational design analysing records belonging to 6 primary care centers and 2 hospitals. We included patients' ≥18 years with an acute episode of gout over the years 2003-2007. Patient follow-up was 2 years. It produced two study groups: patients with 1-2 attacks/acute recurrences and 3 or more events. Main variables were: demographic, co-morbidity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and resource use and health/non-health costs. Statistical analysis: logistic regression-model ANCOVA, P<.05. Results: 3,130 patients with gout were included. Prevalence: 3.3%, mean age: 55.8 years male: 81.1%. Groups were distributed as follows: 68.4% had 1-2 acute attacks and 31.6% with 3 or more, P<.001. The prevalence of MS was 28.8% (confidence interval [CI] 95% CI 27.2 to 30.4%). The average/unit cost was € 2,228.6 (direct costs: 96.9%), 90.8% in primary care (visits: 23.5%; drugs: 57.7%). For groups, the average corrected model/unit total cost per patient was € 2,130.6 vs. € 2,605.4, respectively (P<.001). In all cost components, the results were higher in the group with ≥ 3 attacks. The subgroup of diabetic patients (N = 641, 20.5%) had a higher cost (€ 3,124.8€ vs. € 1,997.8, P<.001). Conclusions: Gout is associated with substantial morbidity, presence of MS and resource consumption. The study provides useful data on the cost of the disease; the costs of outpatient follow up is the highest. © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L.


Sicras-Mainar A.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA | Maurino J.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Ruiz-Beato E.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Navarro-Artieda R.,Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of negative symptoms on healthcare resources utilization and costs in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using electronic medical records from the health provider BSA (Badalona, Spain). All adult outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were followed for 12 months. Two study groups were defined by the presence or absence of negative symptoms based on the PANSS Negative Symptoms Factor (N1-N4, N6, G7 and G16). Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (work productivity losses) were described. An ANCOVA model was used for correction, p < 0.05. Results: One thousand one hundred and twenty patients were included in the study (mean age: 46.8 ± 13.8 years; male: 58.4%). One or more negative symptoms were present in 52.5% of patients (95% CI: 49.6-55.4%). The most frequent were passive/apathetic social withdrawal and emotional withdrawal (60.5% and 49.8%, respectively). Patients with negative symptoms showed a greater mean number of comorbid conditions and pharmacological treatments. The adjusted unit healthcare cost related to the presence/absence of negative symptoms was €2,190.80 and €1,787.60 and the healthcare cost was €2,085.00 and €1,659.10, respectively; (p < 0.001). Patients with negative symptoms used more healthcare resources, mainly derived from primary care. The presence of negative symptoms was associated with being male, dyslipidemia, obesity and arterial hypertension (OR = 1.7, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.2, respectively). Conclusions: Negative symptoms are highly prevalent in adult outpatients with schizophrenia with a relevant economic impact on the healthcare system. © 2014 Sicras-Mainar et al., licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Prados-Torres A.,University of Zaragoza | Poblador-Plou B.,University of Zaragoza | Calderon-Larranaga A.,University of Zaragoza | Gimeno-Feliu L.A.,University of Zaragoza | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the existence of chronic disease multimorbidity patterns in the primary care population, describing their clinical components and analysing how these patterns change and evolve over time both in women and men. The secondary objective of this study was to generate evidence regarding the pathophysiological processes underlying multimorbidity and to understand the interactions and synergies among the various diseases. Methods: This observational, retrospective, multicentre study utilised information from the electronic medical records of 19 primary care centres from 2008. To identify multimorbidity patterns, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out based on the tetra-choric correlations between the diagnostic information of 275,682 patients who were over 14 years of age. The analysis was stratified by age group and sex. Results: Multimorbidity was found in all age groups, and its prevalence ranged from 13% in the 15 to 44 year age group to 67% in those 65 years of age or older. Goodness-of-fit indicators revealed sample values between 0.50 and 0.71. We identified five patterns of multimorbidity: cardio-metabolic, psychiatric-substance abuse, mechanical-obesity-thyroidal, psychogeriatric and depressive. Some of these patterns were found to evolve with age, and there were differences between men and women. Conclusions: Non-random associations between chronic diseases result in clinically consistent multimorbidity patterns affecting a significant proportion of the population. Underlying pathophysiological phenomena were observed upon which action can be taken both from a clinical, individual-level perspective and from a public health or population-level perspective. © 2012 Prados-Torres et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-26-2014 | Award Amount: 5.77M | Year: 2015

The primary objective of Do CHANGE is to develop a health ecosystem for integrated disease management of citizens with high blood pressure and patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure. The system will give them access to a set of personalized health services in a near real-time fashion. This disruptive system will incorporate behavior change methods, such as Do Something Different, in conjunction with new innovative wearable/portable tools that can scan nature and volume of food and fluid intake, monitor behavior and clinical parameters in normal living situations. The objectives will be achieved by empowering patients with (1) tools and services, made available on smartphone or tablet and (2) the full control over the personal data they share with carers. To that extend a cyclic co-design methodology with end-users and health care professionals will be followed during the entire project. At the same time innovative end-user tools, including (1) a smart spatula for salt measurement, (2) a new artifact for fluid measurement and (3) a wearable food scan micro-spectrometer device, will be tested, (re-)designed and evaluated with patients and health professionals in Spain, NL and Taiwan. In view of the better balanced patient-care relationship, the traditional e-health telemonitoring will be enhanced with end-to-end trust assured transactions, secure storage, and ethical analytics of personal health data, making the patient an genuine stakeholder in his own cure processes and the ethical integration point of his own data. The proposal will be highly relevant to PCH 26 (ii): citizens life-style, socio-cultural values are continuously taken into account and a new range of mHealth tools is developed including a disruptive one from Taiwan. By providing concrete behavioral alternatives the new system will help patients to adhere to medical recommendations. Patient engagement and sanitized data logistics are to lead to significant health cost reductions.


Sicras-Mainar A.,Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA | Navarro-Artieda R.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujo
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2016

Objective: To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P, ˂0.05. Results: In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P,˂0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P, ˂0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion: Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. © 2016 Sicras-Mainar and Navarro-Artieda.


Hypertension is a major risk factor due to its high prevalence and the risk of complications. Clinical inertia has been reduced, although blood pressure control could still be improved in certain specific groups. Pharmacoeconomics is an application of health economics that can be used to determine the efficiency of the various therapeutic alternatives available to treat hypertension. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) have been shown to be safe and effective hypotensive drugs, although comparisons among the distinct ARA II have yielded contradictory results. Olmesartan medoxomil is an effective and welltolerated drug with similar or slightly superior efficacy to other ARA II, both in monotherapy and in fixed-dose double- or triple-combination therapy. Undiagnosed or untreated hypertension is the main cause of reduced effectiveness and efficiency in routine clinical practice; treatment requires the development of strategies based on cost-efficiency analyses to reduce health costs and optimize results. The few published studies suggest that olmesartan monotherapy produces a similar or greater reduction in cardiovascular risk and complications than other ARA II and at a lower cost. Combination therapy with two or three antihypertensive agents also seems to have a favorable cost-effectiveness profile, even though the cost of treatment is higher. Importantly, in combination therapies, there is a scarcity of cost-effectiveness data on the use of fixed-doses of ARA II in general and of olmesartan in particular. © 2012 Sociedad Española de Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA).

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