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Genova, Italy

Rohani M.Y.,Institute for Medical Research | Zin N.M.,Institute for Medical Research | Hussin A.,Hospital Queen Elizabeth | Nawi S.H.,Hospital Selayang | And 15 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

From January 2008 to December 2009, 433 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were examined to determine the serotype distribution and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. About 50% of them were invasive isolates. The strains were isolated from patients of all age groups and 33.55% were isolated from children below 5 years. The majority was isolated from blood (48.53%) and other sterile specimens (6.30%). Community acquired pneumonia (41.70%) is the most common diagnosis followed by sepsis (9.54%). Serotyping was done using Pneumotest Plus-Kit and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test strip. Ten most common serotypes were 19F (15.02%), 6B (10.62%), 19A (6.93%), 14 (6.70%), 1 (5.08%), 6A (5.08%), 23F (4.85%), 18C (3.93%), 3 (2.08%) and 5 (1.85%). Penicillin MIC ranged between ≤0.012-4μg/ml with MIC 90 of 1μg/ml. Penicillin resistant rate is 31.78%. The majority of penicillin less-susceptible strains belonged to serotype 19F followed by 19A and 6B. Based on the serotypes distribution 22 (44.00%), 28 (56.00%) and 39 (78.00%) of the invasive isolates from children ≤2 years were belonged to serotypes included in the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Coltella L.,Virology Unit | Mancinelli L.,Virology Unit | Onori M.,Virology Unit | Lucignano B.,Bacteriology Unit | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

We evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Biotyper as a tool for the identification of anaerobic bacteria compared with 500 base-pair (bp) 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing analysis, which is considered to be the "gold standard" method. A total of 484 anaerobic bacteria were retrieved from the clinical specimens of 318 pediatric patients. Molecular identification resulted in 18 genera and 51 species. The most prevalent genus was Clostridium (76.85 %), with 70 % C. difficile isolates. The concordance and sensitivity determined by MALDI-TOF MS for C. difficile, the most prevalent species isolated, was 94.08 %, whereas the specificity was 100 %. For the other anaerobes, the sensitivity and specificity were 94.07 % and 81.82 %, respectively, with a concordance of 93.15 %. Low performance was observed for Propionibacterium acnes and Fusobacterium nucleatum, for which a dedicated pretreatment procedure should likely be set up. MALDI-TOF MS was shown to be a valid alternative for the fast and reliable identification of the most clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria; moreover, it is less time-consuming, the cost for reagents is minimized, and it does not require dedicated personnel. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Onori M.,Virology Unit | Coltella L.,Virology Unit | Mancinelli L.,Virology Unit | Argentieri M.,Bacteriology Unit | And 6 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

We evaluated a multiplex PCR assay, the Seeplex Diarrhoea ACE detection, that simultaneously detects 15 enteric pathogens, including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., toxin B producer Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, adenovirus, Group A rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII, and astrovirus. We compared this assay with clinical methods routinely used in our laboratory, for detecting enteropathogens in stool samples collected from 245 paediatric patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis. We recovered 61 bacterial pathogens and 121 enteric viruses with our laboratory assays, while we detected 78 bacteria and 167 viruses with the molecular assay. We calculated specificity and sensitivity for both methods after analysis of discordant results and demonstrated greater sensitivity for multiplex PCR than for our routine methods, with the exception of Salmonella spp. and toxigenic C. difficile detection. The multiplex PCR assay proved to be a reliable tool to directly detect the most common enteropathogens in stool samples but with some limitations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Faure S.,Laboratory for the Research and Investigation of Veterinary Drugs and Disinfectants | Perrin-Guyomard A.,Laboratory for the Research and Investigation of Veterinary Drugs and Disinfectants | Delmas J.M.,Laboratory for the Research and Investigation of Veterinary Drugs and Disinfectants | Chatre P.,Bacteriology Unit | Laurentie M.,Laboratory for the Research and Investigation of Veterinary Drugs and Disinfectants
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Food animals are a potential source of CTX-M resistance genes for humans. We evaluated the transfer of the blaCTX-M-9 gene from an animal strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow to Enterobacteriaceae of the human intestinal flora by using human flora-associated (HFA) rats with and without cefixime treatment. In the absence of antibiotic, no transconjugant enterobacteria were found in the feces of HFA rats. However, the transfer rate was high if Escherichia coli J5 recipient strains were coinoculated orally with Salmonella. S. enterica serotype Virchow persisted in the rat fecal flora both during and after treatment with therapeutic doses of cefixime. The drug did not increase the transfer rate, and E. coli J5 transconjugants were eliminated from the flora before the end of cefixime treatment. No cefixime was recovered in the rat feces. In the presence of recipient strains, the blaCTX-M-9 resistance gene was transferred from a strain of animal origin to the human intestinal flora, although transconjugant colonization was transient. Antibiotic use enhanced the persistence of donor strains, increasing the resistance gene pool and the risk of its spread. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Bassetti M.,University of Santa Maria in Ecuador | Taramasso L.,University of Genoa | Nicco E.,University of Genoa | Molinari M.P.,Bacteriology Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Candida is an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI), causing significant mortality and morbidity in health care settings. From January 2008 to December 2010 all consecutive patients who developed candidemia at San Martino University Hospital, Italy were enrolled in the study. A total of 348 episodes of candidaemia were identified during the study period (January 2008-December 2010), with an incidence of 1,73 episodes/1000 admissions. Globally, albicans and non-albicans species caused around 50% of the cases each. Non-albicans included Candida parapsilosis (28.4%), Candida glabrata (9.5%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), and Candida krusei (2.6%). Out of 324 evaluable patients, 141 (43.5%) died within 30 days from the onset of candidemia. C. parapsilosis candidemia was associated with the lowest mortality rate (36.2%). In contrast, patients with C. krusei BSI had the highest mortality rate (55.5%) in this cohort. Regarding the crude mortality in the different units, patients in Internal Medicine wards had the highest mortality rate (54.1%), followed by patients in ICU and Hemato-Oncology wards (47.6%). This report shows that candidemia is a significant source of morbidity in Italy, with a substantial burden of disease, mortality, and likely high associated costs. Although our high rates of candidemia may be related to high rates of BSI in general in Italian public hospitals, reasons for these high rates are not clear and warrant further study. Determining factors associated with these high rates may lead to identifying measures that can help to prevent disease. © 2011 Bassetti et al. Source

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