Bacteriology and Avian Diseases

Merelbeke, Belgium

Bacteriology and Avian Diseases

Merelbeke, Belgium
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de Vylder J.D.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Dewulf J.,Ghent University | van Hoorebeke S.V.,Ghent University | Pasmans F.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Concerns regarding the welfare of laying hens have led to the ban of conventional battery cages in Europe from 2012 onward and to the development of alternative housing systems that allow hens to perform a broader range of natural behaviors. Limited information is available about the consequences of alternative housing systems on transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella Enteritidis. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis continues to be one of the leading causes of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide and this is mainly attributed to the consumption of contaminated eggs. A transmission experiment was performed to quantify the effect of the housing system on the spread of a Salmonella Enteritidis infection within a group of layers and on internal egg contamination. At the age of 16 wk, 126 birds housed on the floor were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three weeks later, the inoculated hens were housed together with equal numbers of susceptible contact animals in 4 different housing systems: a conventional cage system, a furnished cage, an aviary, and a floor system. Transmission and egg contamination were followed during a 4-wk period. A trend toward increased bird-to-bird transmission was detected in the aviary and floor system compared with the cage systems. Also, significantly more contaminated eggs were found in the aviary compared with the cage systems and the floor system. These results suggest that there is a clear need to optimize and maintain Salmonella surveillance programs when laying hens will be moved from conventional cage systems to alternative housing systems. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Tobback E.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Hermans K.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Decostere A.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Van Den Broeck W.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease leading to significant losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Little information is available on the pathogenesis of this disease. Basic steps in the establishment of an infection include attachment to the epithelium followed by invasion at the portal of entry. In this study, the interactions of Y. ruckeri with the gills and the gut of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) were studied using standardized perfusion models. Virulent and avirulent Y. ruckeri isolates appeared to adhere to and invade both tissues without significant differences. For the first time, the gill and gut perfusion models are shown to be suitable to study bacterial invasiveness. © Inter-Research 2010.

Liang J.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Ducatelle R.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Pasmans F.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Smet A.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Helicobacter suis is a Gram-negative bacterium colonizing the majority of pigs, in which it causes gastritis and decreased daily weight gain. H. suis is also the most prevalent gastric non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in humans, capable of causing gastric disorders. To gain insight into the genetic diversity of porcine and human H. suis strains, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method was developed. In a preliminary study, 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, mutY, ppa, trpC, ureI, and yphC) of 10 H. suis isolates cultured in vitro were investigated as MLST candidates. All genes, except the ureI gene, which was replaced by part of the ureAB gene cluster of H. suis, displayed several variable nucleotide sites. Subsequently, internal gene fragments, ranging from 379 to 732 bp and comprising several variable nucleotide sites, were selected. For validation of the developed MLST technique, gastric tissue from 17 H. suis-positive pigs from 4 different herds and from 1 H. suis-infected human patient was used for direct, culture-independent strain typing of H. suis. In addition to the 10 unique sequence types (STs) among the 10 isolates grown in vitro, 15 additional STs could be assigned. Individual animals were colonized by only 1 H. suis strain, whereas multiple H. suis strains were present in all herds tested, revealing that H. suis is a genetically diverse bacterial species. The human H. suis strain showed a very close relationship to porcine strains. In conclusion, the developed MLST scheme may prove useful for direct, culture-independent typing of porcine and human H. suis strains. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Ducatelle R.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Eeckhaut V.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Haesebrouck F.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases | Van Immerseel F.,Bacteriology and Avian Diseases
Animal | Year: 2014

Dysbiosis or dysbacteriosis is defined as a shift in the intestinal microbiota composition resulting in an imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria. Since the ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feed in the EU, dysbiosis has emerged as a major problem in intensive animal production. Prebiotics and probiotics are currently under investigation as possible alternatives to growth-promoting antibiotics, as their mode of action is thought to be based largely on a modulation of the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we analyse the currently available data from both animal and human nutrition that document the potential and limitations of prebiotics and probiotics for the control of dysbiosis. An impressive number of empirical feeding trials have been carried out in healthy animals, yielding sometimes contradictory results. More in-depth studies have revealed the complexity of the interactions taking place in the lower intestinal tract, thus illustrating that pre- and probiotics cannot be a simple replacement for growth-promoting antibiotics. Although there are indications that the strategic use of pre- and probiotics can provide major benefits, there is still a lack of basic knowledge on the delicate interactions between the microbiota, the host and the feed components, which hampers the widespread use of these valuable feed additives. © 2014 The Animal Consortium.

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