Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States

Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States
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Nelson C.D.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit | Nelson C.D.,Iowa State University | Nelson C.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Nonnecke B.J.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), has been shown to be an important regulator of innate and adaptive immune function. In addition, synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase in monocytes upon activation by TLR signaling has been found to regulate innate immune responses of monocytes in an intracrine fashion. In this study we wanted to determine what cells expressed 1α-hydroxylase in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and if conversion of 25(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3 in PBMC cultures regulated antigen-specific immune responses. Initially, we found that stimulation of PBMCs from animals vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) BCG with purified protein derivative of M. bovis (M. bovis PPD) induced 1α-hydroxylase gene expression and that treatment with a physiological concentration of 25(OH)D3 down-regulated IFN-γ and IL-17F gene expression. Next, we stimulated PBMCs from M. bovis BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle with M. bovis PPD and sorted them by FACS according to surface markers for monocytes/macrophages (CD14), B cells (IgM), and T cells (CD3). Sorting the PBMCs revealed that 1α-hydroxylase expression was induced in the monocytes and B cells, but not in the T cells. Furthermore, treatment of stimulated PBMCs with 25(OH)D3 down-regulated antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17F responses in the T cells, even though 1α-hydroxylase expression was not induced in the T cells. Based on evidence of no T cell 1α-hydroxylase we hypothesize that activated monocytes and B cells synthesize 1,25(OH)2D3 and that 1,25(OH)2D3 down-regulates antigen-specific expression of IFN-γ and IL-17F in T cells in a paracrine fashion.

Schuller S.,University of Bern | Francey T.,University of Bern | Hartmann K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hugonnard M.,VetAgro Sup | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2015

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Plumb G.E.,National Park Service | Olsen S.C.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Buttke D.,Wildlife Health Branch
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2013

Brucellosis is an ancient disease with host-specific evolutionary mechanisms that allow it to hide from or manipulate cellular immunity and achieve intracellular persistence. The disease yields low fatality rates but can cause substantial disabilities. Zoonotic brucellosis remains widespread and neglected in many areas despite notable advances in science, technology, and management in the 19th and 20th Centuries. The burden appears to remain greatest, and yet most under-prioritised globally, amongst pastoral peoples and small-scale livestock farmers. Capacity building for zoonotic brucellosis diagnosis, surveillance, management, and treatment in developing countries faces numerous challenges. Adaptive risk management can provide a framework to build stakeholder support for addressing the complexities and uncertainties, and learning from management actions. The challenges and opportunities for brucellosis management must be recognised as fundamentally multivariate, multifaceted, and integrative; it is thus crucial for veterinary, public health, and wildlife/conservation professions to collaboratively develop, adopt and promulgate a brucellosis One Health paradigm.

Wadhwa A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Bannantine J.P.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Byrem T.M.,Antel BioSystems | Stein T.L.,Antel BioSystems | And 3 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2012

Johne's disease (JD) or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is one of the most economically important diseases of dairy cattle. Control of JD could be achieved by good herd management practices, and diagnosis; however, this approach has been hampered by the low sensitivity of currently available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In our previous study, we developed a sensitive serum ELISA test, ethanol-vortex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EVELISA), using ethanol extract of MAP. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the EVELISA can be used for detection of anti-MAP antibodies in milk samples. In this study, we tested and optimized concentrations of antigen, milk, and secondary antibody for better differentiation of milk samples of cattle with MAP infections from those of cattle in JD-free herds. We evaluated five environmental mycobacteria as absorbents of cross-reactive antibodies in milk and found that the mycobacteria had no significant effect on EVELISA results. Using the optimized conditions, a total of 57 milk samples from Holstein dairy cattle (37 animals found positive on the fecal polymerase chain reaction test and 20 animals from JD-free herds) were tested for anti-MAP antibody in milk by using the EVELISA method. The average of ELISA values in the JD-positive milk samples (mean±SD=0.355±0.455) was significantly higher than that in the JD-negative milk samples (mean±SD=0.071±0.011). These results warrant further studies for evaluation and validation of the EVELISA for milk testing of cattle for JD. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Miller L.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zanella E.L.,University Of Passo Fundo | Waters W.R.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Lager K.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs, and reproductive failure in sows. Following primary infection of the respiratory tract, PRV can develop into a systemic infection with dispersion of the virus via the lymphatic system that involves mononuclear cells in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the pathogenesis and to determine the early immune cytokine profiles in TBLNs following experimental infection with a feral swine PRV isolate at 1, 3, 6, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Forty healthy pigs were purchased from a PRV-negative herd. Twenty pigs received the Florida strain isolate (FS268) of feral swine PRV intranasally, and 20 uninfected controls received a sham inoculum. Compared to the levels in the controls, the levels of alpha interferon (IFN-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and IFN-γ were increased in TBLN homogenates from PRV-infected pigs at 1 dpi, whereas the IL-18 levels were decreased from 3 to 6 dpi. The protein levels of IL-4 and IL-10 did not differ between the controls and the PRV-infected pigs at any time point. Flow cytometric analysis of TBLN homogenates of PRV-infected pigs and the controls revealed increases in the percentages of B cells at 6 dpi, CD4 + cells at 14 dpi, and CD25 expression in TBLN homogenates (in the total mononuclear fraction and on B cells) in the PRV-infected pigs. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a feral PRV in commercial swine can modulate the host's early immune response to allow the virus to establish an infection. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, University of Pretoria, Yeshiva University, Ames Laboratory and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: mBio | Year: 2016

An emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) pathogen, M.mungi, infects wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. This MTC pathogen did not appear to be transmitted through a primary aerosol or oral route. We utilized histopathology, spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and molecular markers (regions of difference [RDs] from various MTC members, including region of difference 1 [RD1] from M. bovis BCG [RD1(BCG)], M. microti [RD1(mic)], and M. pinnipedii [RD1(seal)], genes Rv1510 [RD4], Rv1970 [RD7], Rv3877/8 [RD1], and Rv3120 [RD12], insertion element IS1561, the 16S RNA gene, and gene Rv0577 [cfp32]), including the newly characterized mongoose-specific deletion in RD1 (RD1(mon)), in order to demonstrate the presence of M.mungi DNA in infected mongooses and investigate pathogen invasion and exposure mechanisms. M.mungi DNA was identified in 29% of nasal planum samples (n = 52), 56% of nasal rinses and swabs (n = 9), 53% of oral swabs (n = 19), 22% of urine samples (n = 23), 33% of anal gland tissue (n = 18), and 39% of anal gland secretions (n = 44). The occurrence of extremely low cycle threshold values obtained with qPCR in anal gland and nasal planum samples indicates that high levels of M.mungi can be found in these tissue types. Histological data were consistent with these results, suggesting that pathogen invasion occurs through breaks in the nasal planum and/or skin of the mongoose host, which are in frequent contact with anal gland secretions and urine during olfactory communication behavior. Lesions in the lung, when present, occurred only with disseminated disease. No environmental sources of M.mungi DNA could be found. We report primary environmental transmission of an MTC pathogen that occurs in association with social communication behavior.Organisms causing infectious disease evolve modes of transmission that exploit environmental and host conditions favoring pathogen spread and persistence. We report a novel mode of environmental infectious disease transmission that occurs in association with olfactory secretions (e.g., urine and anal gland secretions), allowing pathogen exposure to occur within and between social groups through intricate social communication behaviors of the banded mongoose host. The presence of M.mungi in these environmentally deposited secretions would effectively circumvent natural social barriers (e.g., territoriality), facilitating between-group pathogen transmission in the absence of direct physical contact, a rare occurrence in this highly territorial species. This work identifies an important potential mechanism of pathogen transmission of epidemiological significance in social species. We also provide evidence of a novel mechanism of pathogen transmission for the MTC complex, where pathogen movement in the environment and host exposure dynamics are driven by social behavior.

Stanton T.B.,Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit | Humphrey S.B.,Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit | Stoffregen W.C.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Stoffregen W.C.,Boston Scientific Corporation
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 μg CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Olsen S.C.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Carlson S.A.,Iowa State University
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2015

Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially unique set of clinical characteristics compared with other aminoglycosides. This study assessed the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of plazomicin against 15 clinical isolates as well as three reference strains representing Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. These data were compared with those obtained for six other aminoglycosides and two aminocyclitols. Plazomicin and gentamicin were the only drugs demonstrating bactericidal activity towards two of the three Brucella spp., whilst plazomicin was the only drug exhibiting bactericidal activity against B. suis. This is the first study to assess the bactericidal nature of plazomicin against Brucella spp. in vitro. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.

Olsen S.C.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Johnson C.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

One alternative for management of brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park bison (Bison bison) is vaccination of calves and yearlings. Although Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination protects bison against experimental challenge, the effect of booster vaccinations was unknown. This study characterized immunologic responses after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51. In two studies, 8- to 10-month-old female bison were inoculated with saline (n=14), hand vaccinated with 1.1×10 10 to 2.0×10 10 CFU of RB51 (n=21), or dart vaccinated with 1.8×1010 CFU of RB51 (n=7). A subgroup of hand vaccinates in study 1 was randomly selected for booster vaccination 15 months later with 2.2×10 10 CFU of RB51. Compared to single vaccinates, booster-vaccinated bison had greater serologic responses to RB51. However, there was a trend for antigen-specific proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from booster vaccinates to be reduced compared to responses of PBMC from single vaccinates. PBMC from booster vaccinates tended to have greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production than those from single vaccinates. In general, dart vaccination with RB51 induced immunologic responses similar to those of hand vaccination. All vaccinates (single hand, dart, or booster) demonstrated greater (P<0.05) immunologic responses at various times after vaccination than nonvaccinated bison. Booster vaccination with RB51 in early gestation did not induce abortion or fetal infection. Our data suggest that booster vaccination does not induce strong anamnestic responses. However, phenotypic data on resistance to experimental challenge are required to fully assess the effect of booster vaccination on protective immunity. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Jensen A.E.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit | Halling S.M.,Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Brucella are resistant to polymyxin B (PB), but their relative susceptibility to PB and its derivative, colistin (COL) has not been rigorously or systematically studied. Comparative susceptibility of Brucella reference strains, vaccine strain RB51, and Brucella isolates from marine mammals to these two cationic peptides were determined by Etest. Vast differences among Brucella species were found in susceptibility to both PB and COL. Brucella demonstrated similar pattern of relative susceptibility to PB as that of COL, but they were less susceptible to COL. Both B. melitensis and B. suis were the least susceptible to polymyxins and rough strains were more susceptible to both PB and COL than the smooth except for the BvrR mutant. Strains were generally less susceptible to PB when cultured in CO2 rather than ambient air; some became more susceptible in acidified medium. Results show that environment cultural conditions must be considered when selecting for CO2-independent strains of Brucella especially the vaccine strain RB51 on selective media containing PB. Our observations extend basic knowledge of the differential resistance of Brucella to polymyxins. © 2008.

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