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Kaur K.,Babu Banarasi Das University | Gupta R.,Babu Banarasi Das University | Saraf S.A.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

The importance of zinc was 1st reported for Aspergillus niger. It took over 75 y to realize that zinc is also an essential trace element for rats, and an additional 30 y went by before it was recognized that this was also true for humans. The adult body contains about 2 to 3 g of zinc. Zinc is found in organs, tissues, bones, fluids, and cells. It is essential for many physiological functions and plays a significant role in a number of enzyme actions in the living systems. Bioinformatics estimates report that 10% of the human proteome contains zinc-binding sites. Based on its role in such a plethora of cellular components, zinc has diverse biological functions from enzymatic catalysis to playing a crucial role in cellular neuronal systems. Thus, based on the various published studies and reports, it is pertinent to state that zinc is one of the most important essential trace metals in human nutrition and lifestyle. Its deficiency may severely affect the homeostasis of a biological system. This review compiles the role of zinc in prophylaxis/therapeutics and provides current information about its effect on living beings. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists. Source

Chawla P.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Ranjan A.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Pandey P.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Chawla V.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Hydrogels are the biomaterials comprising network of natural or synthetic polymers capable of absorbing large amount of water. Hydrogels are "Smart Gels" or "Intelligent Gels" which can be made to respond to the various environmental conditions like temperature, pH, magnetic/electric field, ionic strength, inflammation, external stress etc. There are numerous potential applications of hydrogels in modern day life ranging from a diaper to gene delivery. This review succinctly describes the classification, properties and preparation methods along with numerous diverse applications of hydrogels like agricultural hydrogels, hydrogel for drug delivery, sensing, dental adhesives, wound healing and tissue regeneration, diet aid and gastric retention and in tissue engineering etc. Hydrogels can be regarded as highly valuable biomaterials for human-beings. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Shukla P.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology | Tripathi S.P.,Institute of Engineering and Technology
Information (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Interpretability and accuracy are two important features of fuzzy systems which are conflicting in their nature. One can be improved at the cost of the other and this situation is identified as "Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-Off". To deal with this trade off Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA) are frequently applied in the design of fuzzy systems. Several novel MOEA have been proposed and invented for this purpose, more specifically, Non Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms (NSGA-II), Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2), Fuzzy Genetics-Based Machine Learning (FGBML), (2 + 2) Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2) PAES), (2 + 2) Memetic-Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2) M-PAES), etc. This paper introduces and reviews the approaches to the issue of developing fuzzy systems using Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMO) algorithms considering 'Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-off' and mainly focusing on the work in the last decade. Different research issues and challenges are also discussed. © 2012 by the authors. Source

Katiyar H.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications | Year: 2016

Motivated from the recent works related to multi-antenna fixed relay network, this investigates the outage performance of a system in which source communicates with destination via two multi-antenna relays. A new protocol has been proposed for this scheme which outperforms the previous scheme published in [1]. A closed-form expression of outage probability and average transmitted power have been derived for more versatile Nakagami-m fading channel, with integer values of m. The effect of number of relay antennas, relay placement and swapping of relay assignment in various fading condition have also been studied. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Sonar P.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology | Singh R.,Shobhit University | Khan S.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid) was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC, paper chromatography (with authentic marker) and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extract and isolated quercetin were investigated against five bacterial and two fungal strains by agar well-diffusion method. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. Ethanolic extract was found to be more active in comparison to the aqueous extract. Hence, isolation was done with ethanolic extract. The lowest effective concentration of quercetin was found to be 12.5 mg/ml against S.aureus and P.aeruginosa. Both extracts and isolated quercetin were found ineffective against fungal strains. Quercetin may be one of the components responsible for the observed anti-microbial activity of the plant. Source

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