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Shukla P.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology | Tripathi S.P.,Institute of Engineering and Technology
Information (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Interpretability and accuracy are two important features of fuzzy systems which are conflicting in their nature. One can be improved at the cost of the other and this situation is identified as "Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-Off". To deal with this trade off Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA) are frequently applied in the design of fuzzy systems. Several novel MOEA have been proposed and invented for this purpose, more specifically, Non Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithms (NSGA-II), Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2), Fuzzy Genetics-Based Machine Learning (FGBML), (2 + 2) Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2) PAES), (2 + 2) Memetic-Pareto Archived Evolutionary Strategy ((2 + 2) M-PAES), etc. This paper introduces and reviews the approaches to the issue of developing fuzzy systems using Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMO) algorithms considering 'Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-off' and mainly focusing on the work in the last decade. Different research issues and challenges are also discussed. © 2012 by the authors.


Shukla P.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology | Tripathi S.P.,Institute of Engineering and Technology
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2013

Interpretability and accuracy are two conflicting features of any Fuzzy Knowledge Based System during its design and implementation, this conflicting nature leads to Interpretability-Accuracy Trade-Off. Secondly, the assessment of interpretability is another important problem for researchers. Several indexes and methods have been proposed for assessing interpretability but this issue remains an open problem because of its subjective nature. This paper discusses two research issues, interpretability assessment and interpretability-accuracy trade-off in Fuzzy Knowledge Base System design using Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization by proposing taxonomy for studying and evaluating the interpretability. © 2013 Springer.


Tripathi A.C.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Gupta S.J.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Fatima G.N.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Sonar P.K.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The diversity in the biological response of 4-thiazolidinones has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore this framework for its potential. It is, therefore, of prime importance that the study of this topic and the development of new synthetic strategies should be based on the most recent knowledge, emerging from the latest research. This review is an endeavor to highlight the progress in the chemistry and biological activity of the 4-thiazolidinones, predominantly after 2006. The last section of the review encompasses the various patents granted on 4-thiazolidinone analogs/derivatives with World Intellectual Proprietary Organization (WIPO) and United State Patent Trademark Office (USPTO), particularly in the duration of the year 2000 to the year 2012. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kaur K.,Babu Banarasi Das University | Gupta R.,Babu Banarasi Das University | Saraf S.A.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014

The importance of zinc was 1st reported for Aspergillus niger. It took over 75 y to realize that zinc is also an essential trace element for rats, and an additional 30 y went by before it was recognized that this was also true for humans. The adult body contains about 2 to 3 g of zinc. Zinc is found in organs, tissues, bones, fluids, and cells. It is essential for many physiological functions and plays a significant role in a number of enzyme actions in the living systems. Bioinformatics estimates report that 10% of the human proteome contains zinc-binding sites. Based on its role in such a plethora of cellular components, zinc has diverse biological functions from enzymatic catalysis to playing a crucial role in cellular neuronal systems. Thus, based on the various published studies and reports, it is pertinent to state that zinc is one of the most important essential trace metals in human nutrition and lifestyle. Its deficiency may severely affect the homeostasis of a biological system. This review compiles the role of zinc in prophylaxis/therapeutics and provides current information about its effect on living beings. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists.


Agrawal O.P.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Sonar P.K.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology
Medicinal Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

Some novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives have been synthesized by the condensation of isatin/5-chloroisatin with thiosemicarbazide to yield thiosemicarbazones, which were then cyclized to form corresponding thia-3,4,9-triaza-fluoren-2-ylamines. These were reacted with substituted aldehydes to give corresponding Schiff bases, which were cyclized using thioglycolic acid in the presence of zinc chloride to obtain the 4-thiazolidinone derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral (IR, MS and NMR) and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, B. pumilus and M. luteus), Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli and P. fluorescens) and for antifungal activity against A. niger and P. chrysogenum by agar-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds were also determined by tube dilution method. The antimicrobial effectiveness of all the compounds was found to be concentration dependent. Two compounds - 2-methyl-3-(1-thia-3, 4, 9-triaza-fluoren-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-one (7aI) and 2-naphthalen-1-yl-3-(1-thia-3, 4, 9-tri aza-fluoren-2-yl)-thiazolidin- 4-one (7aII) - exhibited good antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of all the compounds was found to be better than the antifungal activity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Tripathi A.C.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology | Saraf S.A.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
Materials | Year: 2015

Discovery of fullerenes and other nanosized carbon allotropes has opened a vast new field of possibilities in nanotechnology and has become one of the most promising research areas. Carbon nanomaterials have drawn interest as carriers of biologically pertinent molecules due to their distinctive physical, chemical and physiological properties. We have assigned the nomenclature "Carbon Nanotropes" to the nanosized carbon allotropes. Carbon nanotropes such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, have exhibited wide applicability in drug delivery, owing to their small size and biological activity. The nanotherapeutics/diagnostics will allow a deeper understanding of human ills including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, genetic disorders and various other complications. Recently, nanomaterials with multiple functions, such as drug carrier, MRI, optical imaging, photothermal therapy, etc., have become more and more popular in the domain of cancer and other areas of research. This review is an endeavor to bring together the usefulness of the carbon nanomaterials in the field of drug delivery. The last section of the review encompasses the recent patents granted on carbon nanotropes at United State Patent Trademark Office (USPTO) in the related field. © 2015 by the authors.


Chawla P.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Ranjan A.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Pandey P.,Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management | Chawla V.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Hydrogels are the biomaterials comprising network of natural or synthetic polymers capable of absorbing large amount of water. Hydrogels are "Smart Gels" or "Intelligent Gels" which can be made to respond to the various environmental conditions like temperature, pH, magnetic/electric field, ionic strength, inflammation, external stress etc. There are numerous potential applications of hydrogels in modern day life ranging from a diaper to gene delivery. This review succinctly describes the classification, properties and preparation methods along with numerous diverse applications of hydrogels like agricultural hydrogels, hydrogel for drug delivery, sensing, dental adhesives, wound healing and tissue regeneration, diet aid and gastric retention and in tissue engineering etc. Hydrogels can be regarded as highly valuable biomaterials for human-beings. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sonar P.K.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Singh R.,Shobhit University | Khan S.,Babu Banarasi das National Institute of Technology and Management | Saraf S.K.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid) was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC, paper chromatography (with authentic marker) and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extract and isolated quercetin were investigated against five bacterial and two fungal strains by agar well-diffusion method. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. Ethanolic extract was found to be more active in comparison to the aqueous extract. Hence, isolation was done with ethanolic extract. The lowest effective concentration of quercetin was found to be 12.5 mg/ml against S.aureus and P.aeruginosa. Both extracts and isolated quercetin were found ineffective against fungal strains. Quercetin may be one of the components responsible for the observed anti-microbial activity of the plant.


Katiyar H.,Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications | Year: 2016

Motivated from the recent works related to multi-antenna fixed relay network, this investigates the outage performance of a system in which source communicates with destination via two multi-antenna relays. A new protocol has been proposed for this scheme which outperforms the previous scheme published in [1]. A closed-form expression of outage probability and average transmitted power have been derived for more versatile Nakagami-m fading channel, with integer values of m. The effect of number of relay antennas, relay placement and swapping of relay assignment in various fading condition have also been studied. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.


Gupta S.,Babu Banarasi das Northern India Institute of Technology | Katiyar H.,Babu Banarasi Das University
2014 20th National Conference on Communications, NCC 2014 | Year: 2014

A infrastructure based fixed relay has been employed between the source and the destination and its outage performance has been investigated. The relay decodes the message it receives in one time slot and forwards it in the next time slot. The Generalized K (KG) fading distribution has been assumed. The KG fading distribution is considered to be a generic and a versatile distribution which defines both small scale and large scale fading and is thus referred to as a composite fading distribution. The closed form expression has been derived for the outage probability, when it has been assumed that the destination performs the Selection Combining (SC). The Monte Carlo simulation has been used to verify the theoretical results. © 2014 IEEE.

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