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Rahimpour H.,University of Tehran | Gholami M.,University of Mazandaran | Ardeshir G.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | MiarNaimi H.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology
International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics

Delay Locked Loops (DLLs) and Phase Locked Loops (PLLs) are commonly used as a synthesizer or clock and data recovery circuit in most of the communication systems. In this paper, a new DLL is designed based on PRP conjugate gradient algorithm. The proposed DLL do not need any phase frequency detector, charge pump and loop filters, hence it can contribute better jitter performance and higher speed in comparison with conventional DLLs. In this design, PRP conjugate gradient algorithm is used to optimize the delay amount of each delay cells therefore helps the DLL to lock more accurately and quickly compared with gradient algorithm. In addition, for applying the PRP conjugate gradient algorithm a digital signal processor is used in the proposed architecture. To show the accuracy of the proposed structure's operation, simulation has been done for 15 delay cells and fREF is chosen 14MHz to have output frequency 14×15=210MHz. fOUT=210 MHz is one of the channels in Iran VHF frequency band. As shown with simulation, the proposed architecture has a locking time of approximately 286nsec which is equal to 4 clock cycles of the reference clock. Source

Rahimnejad M.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Adhami A.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Darvari S.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Zirepour A.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Oh S.-E.,Kangwon National University
Alexandria Engineering Journal

Recently, great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to their mild operating conditions and using variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. The traditional MFC consisted of anode and cathode compartments but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are generated. MFCs could be utilized as power generator in small devices such as biosensor. Besides the advantages of this technology, it still faces practical barriers such as low power and current density. In the present article different parts of MFC such as anode, cathode and membrane have been reviewed and to overcome the practical challenges in this field some practical options have been suggested. Also, this research review demonstrates the improvement of MFCs with summarization of their advantageous and possible applications in future application. Also, Different key factors affecting bioelectricity generation on MFCs were investigated and these key parameters are fully discussed. © 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Source

Rahimnejad M.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Hassaninejad-Darzi S.K.,University of Mazandaran | Izadi P.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Ghoreyshi A.A.,BabolNoshirvani University of Technology | Samadi-Maybodi A.,University of Mazandaran
Analytical and Bioanalytical Electrochemistry

Carbon paste electrode was modified by surfactant modified ZSM-5 nanozeolite and the electrochemical behavior of this modified electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry. This electrode showed enhanced electrochemical response and strong analytical activity towards the direct electrochemical oxidation of sulfide. The influence of some parameters such as different mass ratio of ZSM-5 nanozeolite and graphite, surfactant concentration, pH and scan rate of potential was investigated on the anodic peak height of the sulfide oxidation. Under optimal conditions in a buffer solution, pH 8.0, the anodic peak currents increased linearly with the concentration of sulfide and discovered two linear dynamic ranges with slopes of 0.6896 μA/μM and 5423.5 μA/M in the concentration ranges of 5×10-6 to 1×10-4 M and 3×10-4 to 0.1 M, respectively. The detection limit was achieved 1.32×10−6 mol L−1 (3σ). Also, the electron transfer coefficient (α) and diffusion coefficient (D) of sulfide at the surface of modified electrode were calculated. The proposed electrode was successfully used for the determination of sulfide in tap water and mineral water. © 2015, The Authors. Source

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