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Ryait H.S.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Arora A.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Agarwal R.,Thapar University
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems | Year: 2010

Surface electromyogram (SEMG) is a common method of measurement of muscle activity. It is noninvasive and is measured with minimal risk to the subject. The analysis of SEMG signal depends on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. In the present investigation, the study of SEMG signals at different below elbow muscles for four operations of the hand wrist/grip-like opening (op)/closing (cl)/down (d)/up (u) was carried out. Myoelectric signals were extracted by using a single-channel SEMG amplifier consisting of a differential amplifier, noninverting amplifier, and interface module. Matlab softscope was used to acquire the SEMG signal from the hardware. After acquiring the data from six selected locations, interpretations were made for the estimation of parameters of the SEMG using the Matlab- filter algorithm and the fast Fourier transform technique. An interpretation of wrist/grip operations using principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out. PCA was used to identify the best SEMG signal capturing system out of two-channel, three-channel, and four-channel systems. Two acupressure points (on wrist) were also selected for the analysis with other points on the arm. SEMG signal's study at different locations, including pressure points, will be a very helpful tool for the researchers in understanding the behavior of SEMG for the development of the prosthetic hand. © 2010 IEEE.


Rattan D.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Bhatia R.,D. C. R. University of Science and Technology | Singh M.,Thapar University
Information and Software Technology | Year: 2013

Context: Reusing software by means of copy and paste is a frequent activity in software development. The duplicated code is known as a software clone and the activity is known as code cloning. Software clones may lead to bug propagation and serious maintenance problems. Objective: This study reports an extensive systematic literature review of software clones in general and software clone detection in particular. Method: We used the standard systematic literature review method based on a comprehensive set of 213 articles from a total of 2039 articles published in 11 leading journals and 37 premier conferences and workshops. Results: Existing literature about software clones is classified broadly into different categories. The importance of semantic clone detection and model based clone detection led to different classifications. Empirical evaluation of clone detection tools/techniques is presented. Clone management, its benefits and cross cutting nature is reported. Number of studies pertaining to nine different types of clones is reported. Thirteen intermediate representations and 24 match detection techniques are reported. Conclusion: We call for an increased awareness of the potential benefits of software clone management, and identify the need to develop semantic and model clone detection techniques. Recommendations are given for future research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kumar Goyal D.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Kumar H.,Panjab University | Sahni V.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology
Wear | Year: 2012

Hydroturbine components generally suffer from severe wear due to slurry erosion caused by solid particles entrained in the flowing water. High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process is known for depositing protective coatings on the materials. In this work, WC-10Co-4Cr and Al 2O 3+13TiO 2 coatings were deposited on CF8M turbine steel by HVOF spray process and studied with regard to their performance under slurry erosion conditions. High speed erosion test rig was used for slurry erosion tests and effect of three parameters namely average particle size, speed (rpm) and slurry concentration on slurry erosion of these materials was investigated. The bare steel and Al 2O 3+13TiO 2 coating followed ductile and brittle mechanisms respectively under slurry erosion, whereas the WC-10Co-4Cr coating exhibited mixed behaviour (mainly ductile). WC-10Co-4Cr coating was found to be useful to increase the slurry erosion resistance of steel remarkably. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Bala N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Karthikeyan J.,ASB Industries Inc.
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2012

High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment. © 2011 ASM International.


Bala N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2011

Microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-spray coatings are usually required in order to explore the potential industrial application of the latter. This article demonstrates the successful formulation of Ni-20Cr and Ni-50Cr coatings on two boiler steels, namely, SAE 213-T22 and SA 516 steel by cold-spray process. The microstructure, coating thickness, phase formation, and microhardness properties of the coatings were evaluated. The coatings were subjected to cyclic heating and cooling cycles at an elevated temperature of 1173.15 K (900 °C) to ascertain their high-temperature oxidation behavior. Moreover, these cyclic exposures can give useful information regarding the adhesion of the coatings with the substrate steels. Of all the coatings, the Ni-50Cr coating on SA 516 steel had a maximum average hardness value of 469 Hv. As observed from the surface field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis, the coatings were found to have nearly dense microstructure with the sprayed particles in interlocked positions. It was concluded that the cold-spray process is suitable for spraying the preceding powders onto the given boiler steels to produce nearly dense and low oxide coatings. The coatings, in general, were found to follow the parabolic rate of oxidation and were successful in maintaining their surface contact with their respective substrate steels. © 2011 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.


Bala N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2010

Cold spray is an emerging technology that produces high density metallic coatings with low oxide contents and high thermal conductivity, which makes them ideal for high temperature corrosion resistance. In the current investigation, Ni-20Cr alloy powder was deposited on SA 516 boiler steel (0.19C-1.07Mn-0.020S- 0.25P-0.010Si-balance Fe) by cold spray process. Oxidation kinetics was established for the uncoated and cold spray Ni-20Cr coated boiler steel in an aggressive environment of Na 2SO 4-60%V 2O 5 at 900 °C for 50 cycles by the weight change technique. X-ray diffraction, FE-SEM/EDAX, and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the oxidation products. Uncoated steel suffered corrosion in the form of intense spalling and peeling of its oxide scale, which may be due to the formation of unprotective Fe 2O 3 oxides. The Ni-20Cr coating was successful in reducing the weight gain of the steel by 87.2% which may be due to the formation of oxides of nickel and chromium. © 2009 ASM International.


Kaur M.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2011

Detonation-gun (D-gun) spray technology is a novel coating deposition process which is capable of achieving very high gas and particle velocities approaching 4-5 times the speed of sound. This process provides the possibility of producing high hardness coatings with strong adherence. In the present study, this technique has been used to deposit Cr3C2-NiCr coating on T22 boiler steel. Investigations on the behaviour of this coating subjected to high-temperature oxidation in air and oxidation-erosion in actual boiler environment at 700±10°C under cyclic conditions have been carried out. The weight change technique was used to establish the kinetics of oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and EDS elemental mapping techniques were used to analyse the oxidation/oxidation-erosion products. The uncoated boiler steel suffered from a catastrophic degradation in the form of intense spalling of the scale in both the environments. The Cr3C2-NiCr coating showed good adherence to the boiler steel during the exposures with no tendency for spallation of its oxide scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grewal H.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar | Bhandari S.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Indian Institute of Technology Ropar
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2012

WC-Co-Cr coatings were deposited on some hydroturbine 13Cr4Ni and 16Cr5Ni steels by the detonation-gun spray process. An in-depth characterization of the as-sprayed coating was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Microhardness and porosity measurements were also made. The coating was found to have a typical splat-like morphology with some indications of unmelted carbide particles. The XRD results showed the presence of WC as the primary phase along with W2C and Co6W6C as secondary phases. Furthermore, the slurry erosion behavior of the coatings was investigated to ascertain the usefulness of the coatings to reduce the slurry erosion of the steels. The effect of four operating factors viz. the velocity, impact angle, concentration, and particle size on the slurry erosion of coated and bare steels has been studied using a high-speed jet-type test rig. The sand used as an erodent was collected from a power plant to replicate the actual turbine conditions. It has been observed that the given cermet coating can enhance the erosion resistance of the steel. Velocity was found to be the most significant factor affecting the erosion behavior of the coating, whereas it was the erodent particle size in the case of uncoated steel. As evidenced from the SEM images, the platelet mechanism of erosion seemed to be the prominent one, causing the removal of material from the surface of the steel, whereas for the coating, the formation and interlinking of cracks resulted in the removal of material. © The Mineral, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012.


Sharma N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Kbu M.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College
Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference | Year: 2015

High-temperature tribology plays an important role in many engineering applications such as metal forming operations and aerospace industry. Several problems in hot-metal forming of high strength steels occur such as oxidation of tool and workpiece surfaces, increased wear of tools and scaling of workpiece. Moreover, operations at elevated temperatures can significantly influence frictional behavior of tool steels [1]. Present research attempts to analyze experimentally and understand tribological behavior of AISI Hll and AISI HI 3 under dry conditions at room temperatures. High velocity oxy- fuel (HVOF) thermal spray NiCrBSi coating was developed on tool steels. The room-temperature wear performance of uncoated and coated tool steels was evaluated on pin-on-disc tribometer in the laboratory. In-depth analysis of exposed as- sprayed samples was examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). © (2015) by ASM International All rights reserved.


Bala N.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Singh H.,Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College | Prakash S.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Materials and Design | Year: 2010

In the current investigation Ni-50Cr powder was deposited on two boiler steels SA-213-T22 and SA 516 (Grade 70) by cold spray process. The hot corrosion performance of coated as well as bare boiler steels was evaluated in an aggressive environment of Na2SO4-60% V2O5 under cyclic conditions at an elevated temperature of 900 °C. The kinetics of the corrosion was approximated by the weight change measurements made after each cycle for a total period of 50 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 1 h heating in a tube furnace followed by 20 min cooling in ambient air. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) techniques were used to analyse the corrosion products. Both the uncoated boiler steels suffered intensive spallation in the form of removal of their oxide scales, which may be attributed to the formation of unprotective Fe2O3 dominated oxide scales. The Ni-50Cr coated steels showed lesser weight gains and the oxide scales remained intact till the end of the experiment. The phases revealed in the oxide scales of the coated specimens were mainly oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels which are reported to be protective against the hot corrosion. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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