B2S Consulting

Indianapolis, IN, United States

B2S Consulting

Indianapolis, IN, United States
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Marini J.C.,Janssen Research and Development LLC | Anderson M.,BDS Immunoassay Services | Cai X.-Y.,Merck And Co. | Chappell J.,CPR Pharma Services Pty Ltd | And 7 more authors.
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

For biosimilar drug development, it is critical to demonstrate similar physiochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety of the biosimilar product compared to the reference product. Therefore, pharmacokinetic (PK) and immunogenicity (antidrug antibody, ADA) assays that allow for the demonstration of biosimilarity are critical. Under the auspices of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Focus Group (LBABFG), a Biosimilars Action Program Committee (APC) was formed in 2011. The goals of this Biosimilars APC were to provide a forum for in-depth discussions on issues surrounding the development and validation of PK and immunogenicity assays in support of biosimilar drug development and to make recommendations thereof. The Biosimilars APC's recommendations for the development and validation of ligand-binding assays (LBAs) to support the PK assessments for biosimilar drug development are presented here. Analytical recommendations for the development and validation of LBAs to support immunogenicity assessments will be the subject of a separate white paper. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Shen J.,Seventh Wave Laboratories | Shen J.,Vertex Pharmaceuticals | Li S.,Biogen Idec | Bowsher R.R.,B2S Consulting | And 2 more authors.
AAPS Journal | Year: 2015

In pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis, there are many occasions where user-defined calculations need to be performed before or after the primary PK modeling/analysis. Conventionally, these calculations are often executed outside of the primary PK analysis by pre- or post-processing data from multiple sources, manually entering formulas and multiple additional set-ups. Such analysis approaches increase the risk of generating data defects and can employ software that is not fully compliant. We propose a method of leveraging DTA and DTAARRAY variables plus simple programming techniques in an ASCII model to automate these user-defined calculations in WinNonlin and eliminate the need for manual handling of data outside of the primary analysis. We demonstrated the application of this strategy through three case study examples. In case 1 (post-processing data), DTA variables were used to calculate three user-defined parameters in the primary PK model. In case 2 (pre-processing data), a baseline correction decision tree was programmed into the PK model to account for both the endogenous baseline level as well as the presence of residual drug. In case 3, DTAARRAY variables were used to perform a looping operation to calculate the difference factor (F1) and the similarity factor (F2) in support of in vitro bioequivalence evaluations. © 2015, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Devanarayan V.,Abbvie Inc. | Smith W.C.,B2S Consulting | Brunelle R.L.,B2S Consulting | Seger M.E.,B2S Consulting | And 2 more authors.
AAPS Journal | Year: 2017

Today, the assessment of immunogenicity is integral in nonclinical and clinical testing of new biotherapeutics and biosimilars. A key component in the risk-based evaluation of immunogenicity involves the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). Over the past couple of decades, much progress has been made in standardizing the generalized approach for ADA testing with a three-tiered testing paradigm involving screening, confirmation, and quasi-quantitative titer assessment representing the typical harmonized scheme. Depending on a biotherapeutic’s structural attributes, more characterization and testing may be appropriate. Unlike bioanalytical assays used to support the evaluation of pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics, an important component in immunogenicity testing is the calculation of cut points for the identification (screening), confirmation (specificity), and titer assessment responses in animals and humans. Several key publications have laid an excellent foundation for statistical design and data analysis to determine immunogenicity cut points. Yet, the process for statistical determination of cut points remains a topic of active discussion by investigators who conduct immunogenicity assessments to support biotherapeutic drug development. In recent years, we have refined our statistical approach to address the challenges that have arisen due to the evolution in biotherapeutics and the analytical technologies used for quasi-quantitative detection. Based on this collective experience, we offer a simplified statistical analysis process and flow-scheme for cut point evaluations that should work in a large majority of projects to provide reliable estimates for the screening, confirmatory, and titering cut points. © 2017 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists


Khan M.U.,KCAS Inc | Bowsher R.R.,B2S Consulting | Cameron M.,LUMIGEN | Devanarayan V.,Abbvie Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Increasingly, commercial immunoassay kits are used to support drug discovery and development. Longitudinally consistent kit performance is crucial, but the degree to which kits and reagents are characterized by manufacturers is not standardized, nor are the approaches by users to adapt them and evaluate their performance through validation prior to use. These factors can negatively impact data quality. This paper offers a systematic approach to assessment, method adaptation and validation of commercial immunoassay kits for quantification of biomarkers in drug development, expanding upon previous publications and guidance. These recommendations aim to standardize and harmonize user practices, contributing to reliable biomarker data from commercial immunoassays, thus, enabling properly informed decisions during drug development. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.


Marini J.C.,Janssen Research and Development LLC | Anderson M.,BDS Immunoassay Services | Cai X.-Y.,Merck & Company | Chappell J.,CPR Pharma Services Pty Ltd | And 7 more authors.
Botanical Review | Year: 2014

For biosimilar drug development, it is critical to demonstrate similar physiochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety of the biosimilar product compared to the reference product. Therefore, pharmacokinetic (PK) and immunogenicity (antidrug antibody, ADA) assays that allow for the demonstration of biosimilarity are critical. Under the auspices of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Focus Group (LBABFG), a Biosimilars Action Program Committee (APC) was formed in 2011. The goals of this Biosimilars APC were to provide a forum for in-depth discussions on issues surrounding the development and validation of PK and immunogenicity assays in support of biosimilar drug development and to make recommendations thereof. The Biosimilars APC’s recommendations for the development and validation of ligand-binding assays (LBAs) to support the PK assessments for biosimilar drug development are presented here. Analytical recommendations for the development and validation of LBAs to support immunogenicity assessments will be the subject of a separate white paper. © 2014, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Kelley M.,MKelley Consulting LLC | Stevenson L.,Biogen Idec | Golob M.,Merck KGaA | Devanarayan V.,Abbvie Inc. | And 9 more authors.
AAPS Journal | Year: 2015

A novel format was introduced at the recent AAPS NBC Workshop on Method Development, Validation and Troubleshooting in San Diego on 18th May 2014. The workshop format was initiated by Binodh De Silva; Marie Rock and Sherri Dudal joined the initiative to develop and chair the workshop. Questions were solicited by a variety of avenues, including a Linked-In Discussion Group. Once collated and clarified, the topics covered assay development, validation, and analysis of PK, Immunogenicity, and Biomarkers with an additional topic on alternative bioanalytical technologies. A panel of experts (workshop report co-authors) was assigned to each topic to bring forward thought-provoking aspects of each topic. The format of the workshop was developed to target the needs of bioanalytical scientists with intermediate to advanced experience in the field ranging to enable robust discussion and to delve deeper into the current bioanalytical hot topics. While the new format allowed for an interactive session with the topical discussion driven by the audience members, it did not foster equal discussion time for all of the proposed topics, especially Biomarkers and alternative LBA technologies. © 2015, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Ferdinand K.C.,Tulane University | White W.B.,University of Connecticut | Calhoun D.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Lonn E.M.,McMaster University | And 7 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2014

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, are associated with small reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increases in heart rate. However, findings based on clinic measurements do not adequately assess a drug's 24-hour pharmacodynamic profile. The effects of dulaglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on BP and heart rate were investigated using ambulatory BP monitoring. Patients (n=755; 56±10 years; 81% white; 48% women), with type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking =1 oral antihyperglycemic medication, with a clinic BP between 90/60 and 140/90 mm Hg were randomized to dulaglutide (1.5 or 0.75 mg) or placebo subcutaneously for 26 weeks. Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed at baseline and at 4, 16, and 26 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 16 in mean 24-hour SBP, a tree gatekeeping strategy compared the effects of dulaglutide to placebo. Both doses of dulaglutide were noninferior to placebo for changes in 24-hour SBP and diastolic blood pressure, and dulaglutide 1.5 mg significantly reduced SBP (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]), -2.8 mm Hg [-4.6, -1.0]; P=0.001). Dulaglutide 0.75 mg was noninferior to placebo (1.6 bpm; [0.3, 2.9]; P=0.02) for 24-hour heart rate (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]), but dulaglutide 1.5 mg was not (2.8 bpm [1.5, 4.2]). Dulaglutide 1.5 mg was associated with a reduction in 24-hour SBP and an increase in 24-hour heart rate. The mechanisms responsible for the observed effects remain to be clarified. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.


Bowsher R.R.,B2S Consulting | Bowsher R.R.,Millipore | Nowatzke W.L.,Worldwide Clinical Trials
Bioanalysis | Year: 2011

Despite the long and illustrious history of insulin and insulin analogs as important biotherapeutics, the regulated bioanalysis (in this article, regulated bioanalysis refers to the formalized process for generating bioanalytical data to support pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic assessments intended for development of insulin and insulin analogs as biotherapeutics, as opposed to the analytical process used for measuring insulin as a biomarker) of these peptides remains a challenging endeavor for a number of reasons. Paramount is the fact that the therapeutic concentrations are often low in serum/plasma and not too dissimilar from the endogenous level, particularly in patients with insulin resistance, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, this perspective was written to provide helpful background information for the design and conduct of immunoassays to support regulated bioanalysis of insulin and insulin analogs. Specifically, it highlights the technical challenges for determination of insulin and insulin analogs by immunoanalytical methods that are intended to support evaluations of pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics. In a broader sense, this perspective describes the general bioanalytical issues that are common to regulated bioanalysis of peptides and articulates some of the bioanalytical differences between conventional monoclonal antibodies and peptide therapeutics. © 2011 Future Science Ltd.


Fung E.N.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Bryan P.,B2S Consulting | Kozhich A.,Bristol Myers Squibb
Bioanalysis | Year: 2016

LC-MS/MS has been investigated to quantify protein therapeutics in biological matrices. The protein therapeutics is digested by an enzyme to generate surrogate peptide(s) before LC-MS/MS analysis. One challenge is isolating protein therapeutics in the presence of large number of endogenous proteins in biological matrices. Immunocapture, in which a capture agent is used to preferentially bind the protein therapeutics over other proteins, is gaining traction. The protein therapeutics is eluted for digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis. One area of tremendous potential for immunocapture-LC-MS/MS is to obtain quantitative data where ligand-binding assay alone is not sufficient, for example, quantitation of antidrug antibody complexes. Herein, we present an overview of recent advance in enzyme digestion and immunocapture applicable to protein quantitation. © 2016 Future Science Ltd.


PubMed | Bristol Myers Squibb and B2S Consulting
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioanalysis | Year: 2016

LC-MS/MS has been investigated to quantify protein therapeutics in biological matrices. The protein therapeutics is digested by an enzyme to generate surrogate peptide(s) before LC-MS/MS analysis. One challenge is isolating protein therapeutics in the presence of large number of endogenous proteins in biological matrices. Immunocapture, in which a capture agent is used to preferentially bind the protein therapeutics over other proteins, is gaining traction. The protein therapeutics is eluted for digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis. One area of tremendous potential for immunocapture-LC-MS/MS is to obtain quantitative data where ligand-binding assay alone is not sufficient, for example, quantitation of antidrug antibody complexes. Herein, we present an overview of recent advance in enzyme digestion and immunocapture applicable to protein quantitation.

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