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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.13M | Year: 2015

ACTRIS-2 addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases capitalizing work of FP7-ACTRIS. ACTRIS-2 aims to achieve the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape. ACTRIS-2 provides 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column), relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS-2 offers networking expertise, upgraded calibration services, training of users, trans-national access to observatories and calibration facilities, virtual access to high-quality data products. Through joint research activities, ACTRIS-2 develops new integration tools that will produce scientific or technical progresses reusable in infrastructures, thus shaping future observation strategies. Innovation in instrumentation is one of the fundamental building blocks of ACTRIS-2. Associated partnership with SMEs stimulates development of joint-ventures addressing new technologies for use in atmospheric observations. Target user-groups in ACTRIS-2 comprise a wide range of communities worldwide. End-users are institutions involved in climate and air quality research, space agencies, industries, air quality agencies. ACTRIS-2 will improve systematic and timely collection, processing and distribution of data and results for use in modelling, in particular towards implementation of atmospheric and climate services. ACTRIS-2 invests substantial efforts to ensure long-term sustainability beyond the term of the project by positioning the project in both the GEO and the on-going ESFRI contexts, and by developing synergies with national initiatives.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.16 | Award Amount: 11.60M | Year: 2011

Climate change is for a large part governed by atmospheric processes, in particular the interaction between radiation and atmospheric components (e.g. aerosols, clouds, greenhouse and trace gases). Some of these components are also those with adverse health effects influencing air quality. Strengthening the ground-based component of the Earth Observing System for these key atmospheric variables has unambiguously been asserted in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and Thematic Strategy on air pollution of the EU. However, a coordinated research infrastructure for these observations is presently lacking. ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) aims to fill this observational gap through the coordination of European ground-based network of stations equipped with advanced atmospheric probing instrumentation for aerosols, clouds and short-lived trace gases. ACTRIS is a coordinated network that contributes to: providing long-term observational data relevant to climate and air quality research produced with standardized or comparable procedures; supporting transnational access to large infrastructures strengthening collaboration in and outside the EU and access to high quality information and services to the user communities; developing new integration tools to fully exploit the use of atmospheric techniques at ground-based stations, in particular for the calibration/validation/integration of satellite sensors and for the improvement of global and regional-scale climate and air quality models. ACTRIS supports training of new users in particular young scientists in the field of atmospheric observations and promotes the development of new technologies for atmospheric observation of aerosols, clouds and trace gases through close partnership with SMEs. ACTRIS will have the essential role to support integrated research actions in Europe for building the scientific knowledge required to support policy issues on air quality and climate change.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.47M | Year: 2011

The overall objective of SIDARUS is to develop and implement a set of sea ice downstream services in the area of climate research, marine safety and environmental monitoring. SIDARUS will extend the present GMES services with new satellite-derived sea ice products, ice forecasting from regional models and validation of sea ice products using non-satellite data. The demand for improved sea ice information in the Arctic and Antarctic by many user groups is growing as a result of climate change and its impact on environment and human activities. The presently observed reduction of the Arctic sea ice extent, in particular during the summer months and an increasing demand for natural resources are key mechanisms driving human activities in these areas. In Antarctic, ice discharge from several ice shelves is a significant climate indicator, leading to enhanced iceberg population in the Southern Ocean. SIDARUS will develop, validate and demonstrate five sea ice services using satellites as the major source of data. The services include (1) high-resolution sea ice and iceberg mapping by SAR, (2) sea ice albedo from optical sensors, (3) sea ice thickness from satellite radar altimeter and passive microwave data, (4) ARGOS tracking of marine mammals combined with sea ice maps, and (5) ice forecasting based on numerical models and satellite data. In addition to analysis of satellite earth observation data, the project will analyze in situ, airborne and under-ice data from previous and new field campaigns. These are essential data for validation of satellite retrievals. Data products with large or unknown accuracy are of limited values for most users. It is therefore of high priority that data products from past, present and future satellites are validated for quality control and error estimation. SIDARUS will be implemented by a consortium of six partners all with long experience in observation of sea ice and icebergs and implementation of operational services.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.94M | Year: 2016

The goal of the project is to develop the technology foundation for an advanced optical microscope imaging at a resolution beyond the Rayleigh limit, which is set by the photon wavelength. The proposed microscope technique is based on super-twinning photon states (N-partite entangled states) with the de Broglie wavelength equal to a fraction of the photon wavelength. Such microscopy technique will comprise building blocks for object illumination, capturing of scattered twinning photons and data processing. Based on advanced group-III nitride and III-V alloy epitaxial growths and wafer processing techniques we will build the first solid-state emitter of highly entangled photon states, utilizing the cooperative effect of Dicke superradiance (super-fluorescence) emission. Single-photon avalanche detector arrays with data pre-processing capabilities sufficient for capturing high-order field correlation functions of scattered twinning photons will be developed. A dedicated data processing algorithm for extracting the image of an illuminated object from the statistics of scattered twinning photons will complement the hardware. The project goal is to demonstrate imaging at 42 nm spatial resolution using 5-partite entangled photons at 420 nm wavelength. This quantum imaging technology will open the way for compact, portable, super-resolution microscope techniques, with no moving parts and no requirements to the optical properties of the sample.

B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Date: 2016-08-10

An interferometer includes a tunable laser source (1) of coherent radiation generating an input beam; a first polarizer (2) configured to transmit a polarized beam with adjustable intensities of orthogonally polarized components; a broadband non-polarizing beam splitter (3) forming two optically connected arms (I; II), first one with a transmitted beam, and sequentially comprising a birefringent element (4) configured to split the polarized input beam into two separate, parallel, orthogonally polarized reference beam and object beam and mounted on the base (5) with fine rotation, the birefringent element acts as both the splitter and the combiner in an interferometer; and a sample (6) with means of its shifting and inclining; and a chopper wheel (10) with a system of holes that opens sequentially for some time object and reference beams separately, then simultaneously, providing interference of said beams; and a broadband plane mirror (11) reflecting incident object and reference beams in the opposite direction and providing double passing of the beams through the sample and the birefringent element which converts two said beams into orthogonally polarized components of a single output beam falling on a non-polarizing beam splitter; this beam, been reflected, forms the second arm (II) of the interferometer, where there are sequentially arranged a controllable phase retarder (12), configured to introduce phase shift only into one polarization component of a said beam; and the second polarizer (13) that equalizes and mixes the polarization components of the input said beam and transforms input said beam into a beam, which is the result of interference of polarization components of the input beam; and a photodetector (14) configured to receive an input beam and transform an intensity of the beam into output electric signal (27), which can be amplified and analyzed by various electronic devices.

King Abdulaziz City for Science, Technology, B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics and National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Date: 2015-11-01

A differential polarization interferometer is provided. An interferometer performs direct measurement of phase shift of a light wave passed under an arbitrary angle through a sample composed of a transparent substrate holding a thin deposited test film, for metamaterial testing. An example apparatus has a laser source and a first polarizer, and two optically connected arms. A first arm creates orthogonally polarized components of a single output beam for a broadband non-polarizing beam splitter. A second arm has a controllable phase retarder to introduce a phase shift into one polarization component of the reflected single output beam, and a second polarizer to equalize and mix the polarization components of the reflected single output beam. This transforms the reflected single output beam into a beam resulting from interference of polarization components of the reflected single output beam. A photodetector transforms an intensity of the beam into an electric signal for output.

King Abdulaziz City for Science, Technology and B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics | Date: 2015-11-06

Construction of hyperbolic metamaterial for electromagnetic radiation in an optical spectral range is described. Example processes relate to the technical art of metamaterials of the optical region of wavelengths and can be applied for creation of artificial materials changing the features in optical region of wavelengths. An example process widens the working region of wavelengths due to periodic system of nanorods in a definite range of diameters and heights. An example construction is fulfilled of aluminum oxide ceramics with periodic system of nanoholes with the diameters from 30 till 50 nm are filled with the particles of noble metals forming metal nanorods with the height from 3 till 10 diameters of pores from the side of the surface of dielectric substrate turned toward the source of electromagnetic radiation. To provide mechanical strength the thickness of the substrate should be not less than 30 m.

B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Date: 2016-06-15

The invention relates to the area of metamaterials of the optical region of wavelengths and can be applied for creation of artificial materials changing the features in optical region of wavelengths. The technical task of the invention is the widening of the working region of wavelengths due to periodic system of nanorods in a definite range of diameters and heights. The hyperbolic metamaterial (10) of the invention is applicable for electromagnetic radiation in an optical spectral range. The metamaterial (10) comprises a dielectric substrate (1) having a periodic system of nanoholes (2) distributed over a surface of the dielectric substrate (1) and nanorods (4) of a noble metal (3) at least partially filling the nanoholes (2), characterized in that the nanoholes (2) have diameters (d) varying from 30 nm to 50 nm, the nanorods (4) have a height (l) in the range of from 3 to 10 times of the diameters (d), wherein the nanorods (4) are located at a surface of the substrate (1) which is exposable to a source of electromagnetic radiation (5).

Chizhevsky V.N.,B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

It is experimentally demonstrated that the response of a bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at a selected polarization to the effect of the modulated optical feedback at the orthogonal polarization can be considerably enhanced by the additional periodic current modulation via vibrational resonance. It shows up as a nonmonotonic dependence of the response at the frequency of the modulated optical feedback as a function of the amplitude of the current modulation. In such conditions the laser response can be amplified more than 80 times for a weak optical feedback. At the optimal amplitude of the current modulation a complete synchronization of optical switchings between polarization states with modulated optical feedback is observed. The effect of asymmetry of a bistable quasi-potential is also experimentally demonstrated. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Novitsky D.V.,B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We solve the problem of ultrashort pulse propagation in a two-level medium beyond the rotating-wave (RWA) and slowly varying-envelope approximations. The method of solution is based on the Maxwell-Bloch equations represented in the form that allows one to switch between RWA and general (non-RWA) cases in the framework of a single numerical algorithm. Using this method, the effect of a subcycle pulse (containing less than a single period of field oscillations) on the two-level medium was analyzed. It is shown that for such short pulses, the clear breakdown of the area theorem occurs for the pulses of large enough area. Moreover, deviations from the area theorem appear to be strongly dependent on the pulse shape that cannot be observed for longer few-cycle pulses. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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