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BRAC, Bangladesh

Johnson T.B.,Health
Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry | Year: 2010

This article develops the thesis that feelings of unhappiness and depression are an inherent and unavoidable part of being alive. Depression should not necessarily be seen as a medical illness or as a type of mental illness. Of course, frequently occurring feelings of depression that create distress and dysfunction should be properly evaluated before developing potentially effective interventions. Mainstream perspectives offered by the National Institute of Mental Health and alternative perspectives on both the nature of depression and ways of supporting individuals struggling with depression are offered in this article. Antidepressants are now the most widely prescribed drugs in the United States. Critical reviews of the value of antidepressants have found them lacking both in terms of efficacy and safety. Effective and safe interventions should be based on accurate assessments of what is contributing to disabling and recurrent feelings of depression. Appropriate evaluation of sleep patterns, exercise, nutrition, stress factors, cognitive factors, medical illnesses, and so on, need to be conducted as a foundation for developing appropriate interventions. Any effective intervention needs to be based on the well-established medical dictum, "first, do no harm." © 2010 Springer Publishing Company.

Midekisa A.,South Dakota State University | Senay G.,U.S. Geological Survey | Henebry G.M.,South Dakota State University | Semuniguse P.,Health | Wimberly M.C.,South Dakota State University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger malaria epidemics. Remotely sensed environmental indicators were used to examine the influences of climatic and environmental variability on temporal patterns of malaria cases in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods. In this study seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were used to quantify the relationship between malaria cases and remotely sensed environmental variables, including rainfall, land-surface temperature (LST), vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI), and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) with lags ranging from one to three months. Predictions from the best model with environmental variables were compared to the actual observations from the last 12 months of the time series. Results: Malaria cases exhibited positive associations with LST at a lag of one month and positive associations with indicators of moisture (rainfall, EVI and ETa) at lags from one to three months. SARIMA models that included these environmental covariates had better fits and more accurate predictions, as evidenced by lower AIC and RMSE values, than models without environmental covariates. Conclusions: Malaria risk indicators such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, LST, EVI, and ETa exhibited significant lagged associations with malaria cases in the Amhara region and improved model fit and prediction accuracy. These variables can be monitored frequently and extensively across large geographic areas using data from earth-observing sensors to support public health decisions. © 2012 Midekisa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This article reviews identified individual "risk factors" and exogenous cultural factors and processes associated with performance-enhancing substance use and misuse and successful and unsuccessful intervention efforts. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Monash University and Health | Date: 2013-10-30

The present invention relates generally to molecules such as peptides, polypeptides and proteins which interact immunologically with T lymphocytes in subjects having peanut allergy, or allergy to other tree nuts, and genetic sequences encoding same. These molecules are preferably immunointeractive with T cells in subjects having an allergy to the Ara h 1 allergen. The molecules of the present invention are useful in the development of diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic agents for conditions characterised by an aberrant, inappropriate or otherwise unwanted immune response to Ara h 1 or derivative or homologue thereof.

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