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Dolsko, Slovenia

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Dolsko, Slovenia

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Palandacic A.,University of Ljubljana | Matschiner M.,University of Basel | Zupancic P.,AZV Agency | Snoj A.,University of Ljubljana
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Complex aquatic systems of karst harbour a rich but little-investigated biodiversity. In Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina karst, temporal springs are inhabited by a group of minnow-like fishes that retreat to the associated ground water during dry seasons and spend several months underground. The most abundant species in this group is Delminichthys adspersus (Heckel 1843), which also has the most fragmented distribution range. To determine the population composition and dispersal patterns, and to detect potential underground migration, a large genetic data set comprising 544 specimens of D. adspersus covering most of its distribution area was analysed. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (∼1000 bp) and eight microsatellite loci showed that D. adspersus comprises at least three subpopulations with gene flow occurring among them. Coalescent-based analysis revealed a complex migration pattern, with several unidirectional dispersal paths, including between temporal springs that share no surface connection. The results of this study suggest the existence of recurrent underground migration of fish in a karst environment and demonstrate the complexity of its hydrological network. The findings are relevant to conservation strategies for endemic karst organisms and karst ecosystems as a whole. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Palandacic A.,University of Ljubljana | Zupancic P.,AZV Agency | Snoj A.,University of Ljubljana
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2010

Molecular data inferred from three nuclear DNA regions were used to re-examine the phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of former Phoxinellus taxa. Using either distance method, maximum likelihood or MCMC, phylogenetic tree revealed statistically well supported clade of Delminichthys adspersus, Delminichthys ghetaldii, Delminichthys jadovensis, and Delminichthys krbavensis occupying a sister position to Pelasgus prespensis; furthermore, Phoxinellus pseudalepidotus emerged as a sister taxon to Delminichthys-Pelasgus group. There was a moderate support for sister relationship between Telestes croaticus and Telestes fontinalis, while the position of Telestes metohiensis varied depending on the region and method used. The topology of taxa within Delminichthys was weakly supported and remained pretty much unresolved. Our results confirm a previous notion that the former genus Phoxinellus is not a monophyletic group but rather a grouping of independent lineages. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Palandacic A.,Natural History Museum Vienna | Bravnicar J.,University of Ljubljana | Zupancic P.,AZV Agency | Sanda R.,National Museum | Snoj A.,University of Ljubljana
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

This study aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic distribution of Phoxinus phoxinus sensu lato populations in the Balkan Peninsula using molecular methods. For the western Balkan Peninsula, two species (Danubian P. phoxinus and Adriatic P. lumaireul) have been suggested, but not confirmed by subsequent morphological studies or by genetic data. For the present study, more than 300 specimens were collected from the western Balkans.A partial sequence of the mt cyt b gene analysed using Bayesian and ML methods revealed several well-supported clades, with distances ranging from 4% to 11%. The clades were corroborated by RAG1 sequence analysis. Thus, the molecular analysis points to a multispecies complex of Phoxinus sp. with ranges of the clades extending north-west to south-east along the western Balkan Peninsula. In addition, the dispersion of fish through subterranean water connections in karst is indicated. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Marcic Z.,University of Zagreb | Buj I.,University of Zagreb | Duplic A.,State Institute for Nature Protection | Caleta M.,University of Zagreb | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2011

Populations of endemic Croatian dace were found to belong to two different species, one of which is first described in this study. Telestes karsticus sp. nov. differed morphologically from Telestes polylepis in the total count of lateral line scales, number of gill rakers and the shape of the posterior margin of the anal fin. Morphological differences were corroborated with mtDNA analyses (with p-distance between T. polylepis and T. karsticus sp. nov. ranging between 3·2 and 4·1%; and the number of substitutions between 37 and 47). The newly described species is geographically very localized. It has been recorded from only four localities around Velika Kapela and Mala Kapela mountains in Croatia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Perea S.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Bohme M.,University of Tübingen | Zupancic P.,AZV Agency | Freyhof J.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background. Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results. A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear) from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions. Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species. © 2010 Perea et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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