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Venneri A.,University of Sheffield | Gorgoglione G.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Gorgoglione G.,Catholic University Rome | Toraci C.,Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera Policlinico | And 4 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2011

Morphometric and neuropsychological retrospective studies of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have demonstrated that regional atrophies and cognitive impairments may differentiate stable from progressing MCI. No measure has proved helpful prospectively. In this study, twenty five amnestic MCI patients and 25 healthy controls underwent structural MRI and comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The groups' grey matter volumes were ompared with voxel based morphometry and were also correlated with scores obtained on paired associates learning and category fluency tasks. MCI patients had significantly reduced grey matter volume in left mediotemporal and other neocortical regions compared with controls. Atrophy in perirhinal and anterior inferior temporal cortex was associated with poor scores on both category fluency and paired associates learning tasks. After 36 months, 44% of the MCI sample converted to dementia. Converter and non-converter MCI subgroups differed in paired associates learning and in category fluency scores, and showed limited differences in grey matter loss in the hippocampal complex. Variable atrophy in the hippocampus was not a relevant element in the converter/non converter distinction, but converters had significant volumetric reductions in the perhirinal cortex and in other anterior temporal and frontal neocortical areas. A high proportion of converters (91%) could be identified from baseline data using a combination of measures of regional atrophy in left temporal association cortex and poor scores on paired associates learning and category fluency tasks. This combined approach may offer a better option than using each measure alone to prospectively identify individuals at more immediate risk of conversion to dementia in the MCI population. The clinical advantage of this combination of structural MRI and neuropsychological measures in predicting conversion to dementia will need additional prospective validation. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Licinio R.,Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera Policlinico | Principi M.,Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera Policlinico | Losurdo G.,Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera Policlinico | Castellaneta N.M.,Azienda Universitario Ospedaliera Policlinico | And 2 more authors.
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Cirrhosis has always been regarded as hemorrhagic coagulopathy caused by the reduction in the hepatic synthesis of procoagulant proteins. However, with the progression of liver disease, the cirrhotic patient undergoes a high rate of thrombotic phenomena in the portal venous system. Although the progression of liver failure produces a reduction in the synthesis of anticoagulant molecules, a test able to detect the patients with hemostatic balance shifting towards hypercoagulability has not yet been elaborated. The need of treatment and/or prophylaxis of cirrhotic patients is demonstrated by the increased mortality, the risk of bleeding from esophageal varices, and the mortality of liver transplantation, when portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurs even if current guidelines do not give indications about PVT treatment in cirrhosis. In view of the general feeling that the majority of cirrhotic patients at an advanced stage may be in a procoagulant condition (suggested by the sharp increase in the prevalence of PVT), it is presumable that a prophylaxis of this population could be of benefit. The safety and the efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment with enoxaparin in patients with cirrhosis demonstrated by a single paper suggest this option only in controlled trials and, currently, there are no sufficient evidences for a recommendation in the clinical practice. © 2014 Raffaele Licinio et al. Source

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