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Raballo A.,Copenhagen University | Raballo A.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Saebye D.,Copenhagen University | Parnas J.,Copenhagen University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011

Nonpsychotic anomalies of subjective experience were emphasized in both classic literature and phenomenological psychiatry as essential clinical features of schizophrenia. However, only in recent years, their topicality with respect to the construct validity of the concept of the schizophrenia spectrum has been explicitly acknowledged, mainly as a consequence of the increasing focus on early detection and prevention of psychosis. The current study tested the hypothesis of a specific aggregation of self-disorders (SDs, various anomalies of self-awareness) in schizophrenia-spectrum conditions, comparing different diagnostic groups; 305 subjects, previously assessed in the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study, were grouped into 4 experimental samples, according to their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised) main diagnosis: schizophrenia, (n=29), schizotypal personality disorder (n=61), other mental illness not belonging to the schizophrenia spectrum (n=112), and no mental illness (n=103). The effect of diagnostic grouping on the level of SDs was explored via general linear model and logistic regression. The diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizotypy predicted higher levels of SDs, and SDs scores were significantly different between spectrum and nonspectrum samples; the likelihood of experiencing SDs increased as well with the diagnostic severity. The findings support the assumption that SDs are a discriminant psychopathological feature of the schizophrenia spectrum and suggest their incorporation to strengthen its construct validity, with potential benefit for both early detection and pathogenetic research. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. Source

Raballo A.,Copenhagen University | Raballo A.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Parnas J.,Copenhagen University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011

The identification of individuals carrying unexpressed genetic liability to schizophrenia is crucial for both etiological research and clinical risk stratification. Subclinical psychopathological features detectable in the nonpsychotic part of the schizophrenia spectrum could improve the delineation of informative vulnerability phenotypes. Inspired by Meehl's schizotaxia- schizotypy heuristic model, we tested anomalous subjective experiences (self-disorders, SDs) as a candidate vulnerability phenotype in a sample of nonpsychotic, genetically high-risk subjects. A total of 218 unaffected members of 6 extended multiplex families (assessed between 1989 and 1999 during the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Linkage Study) were stratified into 4 groups of increasing psychopathological expressivity: no mental illness (NMI), no mental illness with schizotypal traits (NMI-ST), personality disorders not fulfilling other personality disorders (OPDs), and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We tested the distribution of SDs among the subgroups, the effect of SDs on the risk of belonging to the different subgroups, and the effect of experimental grouping and concomitant psychopathology (ie, negative symptoms (NSs) and subpsychotic formal thought disorder [FTD]) on the chances of experiencing SDs. SDs distribution followed an incremental pattern from NMI to SPD. SDs were associated with a markedly increased risk of NMI-ST, OPDs, or SPD. The odds of SDs increased as a function of the diagnostic category assignment, independently of sociodemographics and concomitant subclinical psychopathology (NSs and FTD). The results support SDs as an expression of schizotaxic vulnerability and indicate a multidimensional model of schizotypy-characterized by SDs, NSs, FTD-as a promising heuristic construct to address liability phenotypes in genetically high-risk studies. © 2011 The Author. Source

Tonni G.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Lituania M.,Preconceptional and Prenatal Diagnostic Service
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2012

The purpose of this pictorial essay is to report on the application of OmniView (GE Healthcare, Zipf, Austria), new 3-dimensional sonographic software, and its application in the prenatal sonographic study of the fetal hard and soft palates. We will show that this novel technique is easy and feasible, requires a limited learning curve, and provides correct volume interrogation of the region of interest. The OmniView algorithm may be useful in training programs, and volume data sets can be interpreted by experts in remote sites. Future prospective studies with consecutive patients will be necessary to evaluate whether the routine application of OmniView will increase the prenatal diagnosis of facial clefting, especially those with isolated palate defects. © 2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Source

Rossi P.G.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Baldacchini F.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Ronco G.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women.Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities. Source

Gagliotti C.,Agenzia Sanitaria e Sociale Regionale Emilia Romagna | Cappelli V.,Agenzia Sanitaria e Sociale Regionale Emilia Romagna | Carretto E.,Azienda Ospedaliera di Reggio Emilia | Marchi M.,Agenzia Sanitaria e Sociale Regionale Emilia Romagna | And 82 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Starting in 2010, there was a sharp increase in infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems in the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy. A region-wide intervention to control the spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) in Emilia-Romagna was carried out, based on a regional guideline issued in July 2011. The infection control measures recommended to the Health Trusts (HTs) were: phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production, active surveillance of asymptomatic carriers and contact isolation precautions for carriers. A specific surveillance system was activated and the implementation of control measures in HTs was followed up. A significant linear increase of incident CPKP cases over time (p<0.001) was observed at regional level in Emilia-Romagna in the pre-intervention period, while the number of cases remained stable after the launch of the intervention (p=0.48). Considering the patients hospitalised in five HTs that provided detailed data on incident cases, a downward trend was observed in incidence after the release of the regional guidelines (from 32 to 15 cases per 100,000 hospital patient days). The spread of CPKP in Emilia-Romagna was contained by a centrally-coordinated intervention. A further reduction in CPKP rates might be achieved by increased compliance with guidelines and specific activities of antibiotic stewardship. © 2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source

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