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San Giorgio di Piano, Italy

Sabbatani S.,University of Bologna | Fiorino S.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna
Infezioni in Medicina | Year: 2016

Vampirism has been a component of Central European and Balkan folklore since the Middle Ages and was often believed to be responsible for the transmission of serious infectious diseases such as plague and tuberculosis/consumption. Vampirism was believed to be spread within the same family or village and if the rite of the so-called second burial after death was not performed. The practice of second burial entailed exhumation of the body and the removal of the shroud from the mouth of the corpse, and a search for evidence if the corpse had chewed the cloth. If the shroud was chewed, a handful of earth or a brick was put into the body’s mouth so that the vampire could no longer harm others. In some cases, the corpse was decapitated and an awl, made of ash, was thrust into its chest. Furthermore, the limbs were nailed down to prevent its movements. Remarkably, these beliefs were not restricted to the popular classes, but were also debated by theologians, political scientists at the height of the eighteenth century (Enlightenment). In the Habsburg Empire, this question attained such important political, social as well as health connotations as to force the Empress Maria Theresa to entrust an ad hoc study to her personal physician Gerard van Swieten with a view to determining what was true about the apparitions of vampires that occurred throughout central Europe and in the Balkans. The result of this investigation led to a ban on the second burial rites. Despite this prohibition, the practice of necrophilia on the bodies of suspected people continued and both a cultured and popular literature on vampirism continued to flourish into the nineteenth century. © 2016, EDIMES Edizioni Medico Scientifiche. All rights reserved.

Sevilla-Dedieu C.,MGEN Foundation for Public Health | Kovess-Masfety V.,University of Paris Descartes | Kovess-Masfety V.,EHESP School of Public Health | Angermeyer M.,University of Hamburg | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research | Year: 2011

The use of services for mental problems is generally reported as being relatively low. However, the methods used for data collection in surveys may have influenced the quality of self-reported service use. This study compares the information on recourse to physicians for mental problems reported in different sections of a survey conducted in six European countries. Thus, 5545 respondents were asked questions on contacts with physicians at least twice: (1) after the symptoms checklist in any completed diagnostic section, and (2) in a section devoted to use of care for mental problems. Of these 39.3% reported contacts with physicians about mental problems in the diagnostic sections, whereas 29.5% did so in the use-of-care section. Inconsistencies concerned 20.1% of participants, among whom those reporting consultations in diagnostic sections without reporting them in the use-of-care section represented the majority (74.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, marital status, educational level and country were associated with under-reporting in the use-of-care section, as well as having mood or sleep problems. In conclusion, services used for mental health reasons when measured through a question referring to use of care due to the presence of a mental problem may underestimate the care people received for their problems. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Van Den Bent M.J.,Neuro oncology Unit | Brandes A.A.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna | Taphoorn M.J.B.,Medical Center Haaglanden | Taphoorn M.J.B.,VU University Amsterdam | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma are chemotherapy-sensitive tumors. We now present the long-term follow-up findings of a randomized phase III study on the addition of six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Adult patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors were randomly assigned to either 59.4 Gy of RT or the same RT followed by six cycles of adjuvant PCV. An exploratory analysis of the correlation between 1p/19q status and survival was part of the study. Retrospectively, the methylation status of the methyl-guanine methyl transferase gene promoter and the mutational status of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene were determined. The primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival based on intent-to-treat analysis. Results: A total of 368 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 140 months, OS in the RT/PCV arm was significantly longer (42.3 v 30.6 months in the RT arm, hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.95). In the 80 patients with a 1p/19q codeletion, OS was increased, with a trend toward more benefit from adjuvant PCV (OS not reached in the RT/PCV group v 112 months in the RT group; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.03). IDH mutational status was also of prognostic significance. Conclusion: The addition of six cycles of PCV after 59.4 Gy of RT increases both OS and PFS in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. 1p/19q-codeleted tumors derive more benefit from adjuvant PCV compared with non-1p/19q-deleted tumors. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Ageing is the major risk factor for idiopathic PARKINSONS DISEASE (PD), the first motor neurodegenerative disorder (in EU 1% in 65\; about 4% in 80\). The most recent conceptualizations of ageing and PD indicate that they share basic mechanisms, e.g. accumulation of senescent cells and propagation phenomena such as inflammaging mirrored in PD by neuro-inflammaging in brain that foster a prion-like spreading of neuronal damage. Thus, to fully understand PD pathogenesis and set up innovative neuro-protective therapies it is mandatory to posit PD within the framework of ageing process. The main goal of PROPAG-AGEING is to identify specific cellular and molecular perturbations deviating from healthy ageing trajectories towards PD. To this aim the project will exploit four large, very informative EXISTING COHORTS where biomaterials are available: i) de novo PD patients (before any therapy) followed longitudinally, including the largest repository of PD patients, i.e. PPMI; ii) centenarians and their offspring (CO) who never showed clinical signs of motor disability; iii) old twins of the Swedish Twin Registry (STR) followed longitudinally for >45 years, assessed for lifestyle and exposure to toxicants, and where incident and prevalent cases of PD discordant twins have been collected, including brains. The most informative sample from these cohorts will be studied in a DISCOVERY PHASE by an integrated set of omics to identify molecular signatures whose results will enter in a VALIDATION PHASE exploiting the four large cohorts, and performing functional in in vitro studies using dopaminergic neurons obtained by PD somatic cells from PD patients and centenarians via iPSC protocol. An added value is that omic data in centenarians and CO are available, and will represent the gold standard of healthy ageing. This approach will allow to identify new molecular profiles for early diagnosis and therapy (identification of druggable targets) of PD and signatures of healthy ageing.

Alessandrini E.R.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Rome | Faustini A.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Rome | Chiusolo M.,Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dellAmbiente del Piemonte | Stafoggia M.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Rome | And 26 more authors.
Epidemiologia e Prevenzione | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: this study aims at presenting the results from the Italian EpiaAir2 Project on the short-term effects of air pollution on adult population (35+ years old) in 25 Italian cities. DESIGN: the short-term effects of air pollution on resident people died in their city were analysed adopting the time series approach. The association between increases in 10 μg/m3 in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 air concentration and natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory mortality was studied. City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate the association of daily concentrations of pollutants with daily counts of deaths. The analysis took into account temporal and meteorological factors to control for potential confounding effect. Pooled estimates have been derived from random-effects meta-analysis, evaluating the presence of heterogeneity in the city-specific results. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: it was analysed 422,723 deaths in the 25 cities of the project among people aged 35 years or more, resident in each city during the period 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOMES: daily counts of natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality, obtained from the registries of each city. Demographic information were obtained by record linkage procedure with the civil registry of each city. RESULTS: mean numberofdeaths for natural causes ranged from 513 in Rovigo to 20,959 in Rome. About 25% of deaths are duetocardiac diseases, 10%tocerebrovascular diseases, and 7% to respiratory diseases. It was found an immediate effect of PM10 on natural mortality (0.51%; 95%CI 0.16-0.86; lag 0-1). More relevant and prolonged effects (lag 0-5) have been found for PM2.5 (0.78%; 95%CI 0.12-1.46) and NO2 (1.10%; 95%CI 0.63-1.58). Increases in cardiac mortality are associated with PM10 (0.93%; 95%CI 0.16-1.70) and PM2.5 (1.25%; 95%CI 0.17-2.34), while for respiratory mortality exposure to NO 2 has an important role (1.67%; 95%CI 0.23-3.13; lag 2-5), as well as PM10 (1.41%; 95%CI-0.23;+3.08). Results are strongly homogeneous among cities, except for respiratory mortality. No effect has been found for cerebrovascular mortality and weak evidence of association has been observed between ozone and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: a clear increase in mortality associated to air pollutants was observed. More important are the effects of NO2 (on natural mortality), mostly associated with traffic emissions, and of PM2.5 (on cardiac and respiratory mortality). Nitrogen dioxide shows an independent effect from the particulate matter, as observed in the bi-pollutant models.

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