Sevilla-Dedieu C.,MGEN Foundation for Public Health |
Kovess-Masfety V.,University of Paris Descartes |
Kovess-Masfety V.,EHESP School of Public Health |
Angermeyer M.,University of Hamburg |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research | Year: 2011
The use of services for mental problems is generally reported as being relatively low. However, the methods used for data collection in surveys may have influenced the quality of self-reported service use. This study compares the information on recourse to physicians for mental problems reported in different sections of a survey conducted in six European countries. Thus, 5545 respondents were asked questions on contacts with physicians at least twice: (1) after the symptoms checklist in any completed diagnostic section, and (2) in a section devoted to use of care for mental problems. Of these 39.3% reported contacts with physicians about mental problems in the diagnostic sections, whereas 29.5% did so in the use-of-care section. Inconsistencies concerned 20.1% of participants, among whom those reporting consultations in diagnostic sections without reporting them in the use-of-care section represented the majority (74.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, marital status, educational level and country were associated with under-reporting in the use-of-care section, as well as having mood or sleep problems. In conclusion, services used for mental health reasons when measured through a question referring to use of care due to the presence of a mental problem may underestimate the care people received for their problems. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Field handling conditions of raw milk sold in vending machines: experimental evaluation of the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7,Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni
Giacometti F.,University of Bologna |
Serraino A.,University of Bologna |
Finazzi G.,Instituto Zooprofilattico |
Daminelli P.,Instituto Zooprofilattico |
And 6 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012
The direct sale by farmers of raw milk for human consumption has been allowed in Italy since 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold in vending machines, in field handling conditions, and during shelf-life from production to consumption. Temperature of storage of raw milk in 33 farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk were investigated from farm to vending machine delivery, together with consumer habits in one province of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Failure to maintain appropriate low temperatures during shelf-life was recorded and 43% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption. Listeria monocy-togenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni strains were inoculated into raw milk samples, and the best (4°C as established by law) and worst temperature storage conditions detected (variable temperature) were simulated. Boiling tests were performed for each pathogen considered at high and low levels of contamination. Results showed an increase in L. monocytogenes in milk stored at 4°C and at variable temperatures recorded in shelf-life monitoring, an increase in E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at variable temperatures but not at 4°C, and a decrease in C. jejuni in all storage conditions. Boiling milk is effective in making it safe for consumers. This study provides evidence that appropriate handling of raw milk, maintaining low temperatures, together with consumer education concerning boiling raw milk before consumption are key factors in preventing foodborne infections linked to raw milk consumption, and helps assess the risk of foodborne infection linked to raw milk consumption. © Giacometti et al., 2012.
Sabbatani S.,University of Bologna |
Fiorino S.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna
Infezioni in Medicina | Year: 2016
Vampirism has been a component of Central European and Balkan folklore since the Middle Ages and was often believed to be responsible for the transmission of serious infectious diseases such as plague and tuberculosis/consumption. Vampirism was believed to be spread within the same family or village and if the rite of the so-called second burial after death was not performed. The practice of second burial entailed exhumation of the body and the removal of the shroud from the mouth of the corpse, and a search for evidence if the corpse had chewed the cloth. If the shroud was chewed, a handful of earth or a brick was put into the body’s mouth so that the vampire could no longer harm others. In some cases, the corpse was decapitated and an awl, made of ash, was thrust into its chest. Furthermore, the limbs were nailed down to prevent its movements. Remarkably, these beliefs were not restricted to the popular classes, but were also debated by theologians, political scientists at the height of the eighteenth century (Enlightenment). In the Habsburg Empire, this question attained such important political, social as well as health connotations as to force the Empress Maria Theresa to entrust an ad hoc study to her personal physician Gerard van Swieten with a view to determining what was true about the apparitions of vampires that occurred throughout central Europe and in the Balkans. The result of this investigation led to a ban on the second burial rites. Despite this prohibition, the practice of necrophilia on the bodies of suspected people continued and both a cultured and popular literature on vampirism continued to flourish into the nineteenth century. © 2016, EDIMES Edizioni Medico Scientifiche. All rights reserved.
Zoli M.,CNR Institute of Neurological Sciences |
Mazzatenta D.,CNR Institute of Neurological Sciences |
Valluzzi A.,CNR Institute of Neurological Sciences |
Marucci G.,Bellaria Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2014
Object. In the last decade the indications for the endoscopic endonasal approach have been progressively expanded to include lesions that have not been traditionally considered amenable to resection through the transsphenoidal route. In this study, the authors analyze their experience with hypothalamic gliomas treated via the endoscopic endonasal approach. Methods. Consecutive cases of hypothalamic gliomas treated since 2007 via an endoscopic endonasal approach were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative neuroimaging as well as endocrinological, neurological, and visual symptoms were analyzed to assess the surgical outcome. Signs and symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction including body mass index (BMI), memory, sleep-wake rhythm, and polyphagia were prospectively collected pre- and postoperatively to assess hypothalamic function. Quality of life was evaluated using the Katz scale. Results. In the initial phase the endoscopic endonasal approach was adopted in 3 cases with a palliative intent, to obtain a biopsy sample or for debulking of the mass followed by radio- or chemotherapy. In 2 later cases it was successfully adopted to achieve gross-total tumor resection. Complications consisted of 2 postoperative CSF leaks, which required an endoscopic endonasal reintervention. Visual deficit improved in 3 cases and normalized in the other 2. Four patients developed diabetes insipidus, and 3 an anterior panhypopituitarism. All patients had a moderate increase in BMI. No patients presented with any other signs of hypothalamic damage, and their quality of life at follow-up is normal. Conclusions. Despite the limitations of a short follow-up and small sample, the authors' early experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach has revealed it to be a direct, straightforward, and safe approach to third ventricle astrocytomas. It allowed the authors to perform tumor resection with the same microsurgical technique: dissecting the tumor with 2 hands, performing a central debulking, and controlling the bleeding with bipolar coagulation. The main limitations were represented by some anatomical conditions, such as the position of the chiasm and the anterior communicating artery complex and, finally, by the challenge of watertight plastic repair. To definitively evaluate the role of this approach in hypothalamic gliomas, a comparison with transcranial series would be necessary, but due to the rarity of these cases such a study is still lacking. The authors observed that more aggressive surgery is associated with a worse endocrinological outcome; thus they consider it to be an open question (in particular in prepubertal patients) whether radical removal is an advisable goal for hypothalamic gliomas. © AANS, 2014.
Fioritti A.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna |
Burns T.,University of Oxford |
Hilarion P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Van Weeghel J.,Phrenos |
And 3 more authors.
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal | Year: 2014
Topic: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a psychosocial intervention with a considerable body of evidence for its effectiveness in helping people with severe psychiatric disorders to obtain and maintain competitive jobs. In the last decades several European studies have replicated earlier American outcomes, generating widespread interest about its implementation in Europe. Purpose: This article describes and compares details about achievements and challenges of IPS in 4 European countries: the United Kingdom, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain. Sources Used: This description draws from published and nonpublished material about policy, development of services, and services evaluation. Results: In the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, empirical studies exploring the consistency of results over time and the effectiveness of IPS adaptations to local needs and special population are in course. In the United Kingdom, IPS has become national policy, as well as in some regions of Italy and Spain. Training is quite extensive in the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, developing well in Italy and Spain. Implementation seems to be less straightforward, mostly because of deeply rooted cultural values regarding both work and mental health care. Strong local leadership is still required. In all countries contingencies related to the current economic crisis seems to have increased interest in IPS. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: With the converging forces of strong local leadership, rapid economic changes, and slow cultural shifts, IPS may soon become a priority intervention in Europe for ensuring that people living with serious mental illnesses are able to obtain competitive employment. © 2014 American Psychological Association.
PROPAG-AGEING - The continuum between healthy ageing and idiopathic Parkinson Disease within a propagation perspective of inflammation and damage: the search for new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-01-2014 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2015
Ageing is the major risk factor for idiopathic PARKINSONS DISEASE (PD), the first motor neurodegenerative disorder (in EU 1% in 65\; about 4% in 80\). The most recent conceptualizations of ageing and PD indicate that they share basic mechanisms, e.g. accumulation of senescent cells and propagation phenomena such as inflammaging mirrored in PD by neuro-inflammaging in brain that foster a prion-like spreading of neuronal damage. Thus, to fully understand PD pathogenesis and set up innovative neuro-protective therapies it is mandatory to posit PD within the framework of ageing process. The main goal of PROPAG-AGEING is to identify specific cellular and molecular perturbations deviating from healthy ageing trajectories towards PD. To this aim the project will exploit four large, very informative EXISTING COHORTS where biomaterials are available: i) de novo PD patients (before any therapy) followed longitudinally, including the largest repository of PD patients, i.e. PPMI; ii) centenarians and their offspring (CO) who never showed clinical signs of motor disability; iii) old twins of the Swedish Twin Registry (STR) followed longitudinally for >45 years, assessed for lifestyle and exposure to toxicants, and where incident and prevalent cases of PD discordant twins have been collected, including brains. The most informative sample from these cohorts will be studied in a DISCOVERY PHASE by an integrated set of omics to identify molecular signatures whose results will enter in a VALIDATION PHASE exploiting the four large cohorts, and performing functional in in vitro studies using dopaminergic neurons obtained by PD somatic cells from PD patients and centenarians via iPSC protocol. An added value is that omic data in centenarians and CO are available, and will represent the gold standard of healthy ageing. This approach will allow to identify new molecular profiles for early diagnosis and therapy (identification of druggable targets) of PD and signatures of healthy ageing.
PubMed | University of Bologna and Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Le infezioni in medicina : rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive | Year: 2016
During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a dental worm could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.
PubMed | University of Bologna and Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiologia e prevenzione | Year: 2015
to identify organisational determinants of adherence to evidence-based drug treatments after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), under the hypothesis that low adherence is associated with higher mortality and risk of reinfarction. In particular, we investigated the effect of group vs. single handed practice and multi-professional practice characteristics on patients adherence to polytherapy after AMI.retrospective cohort study.residents in the Local Health Authority of Bologna (Italy) who were discharged from any Italian hospital between 2008 and 2011 with a diagnosis of AMI, and followed-up for a year.adherence to at least three out of the four drug therapies recommended for secondary prevention of AMI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, -blockers, antiplatelet agents, statins). Patients who had at least 80% of days of follow-up covered by drug doses were considered adherent.of the 4,828 post-AMI patients, 31.6% were adherent to polytherapy. General practice characteristics were unrelated to adherence, whereas discharge from cardiology hospital wards was significantly associated with higher patients adherence (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.56-2.48).general practice organisational models are not associated with higher adherence to evidence-based medications after AMI, whereas cardiologists seem to play a key role in improving patient adherence to polytherapy. Healthcare delivery models should be designed; in them, general practitioners are responsible for the provision of patient-centred care pathways and for care co-ordination with other primary care professionals and specialists, and take an advocacy role for the patient when needed.
PubMed | Phrenos., University of Oxford, Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychiatric rehabilitation journal | Year: 2014
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a psychosocial intervention with a considerable body of evidence for its effectiveness in helping people with severe psychiatric disorders to obtain and maintain competitive jobs. In the last decades several European studies have replicated earlier American outcomes, generating widespread interest about its implementation in Europe.This article describes and compares details about achievements and challenges of IPS in 4 European countries: the United Kingdom, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain.This description draws from published and nonpublished material about policy, development of services, and services evaluation.In the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, empirical studies exploring the consistency of results over time and the effectiveness of IPS adaptations to local needs and special population are in course. In the United Kingdom, IPS has become national policy, as well as in some regions of Italy and Spain. Training is quite extensive in the United Kingdom and in The Netherlands, developing well in Italy and Spain. Implementation seems to be less straightforward, mostly because of deeply rooted cultural values regarding both work and mental health care. Strong local leadership is still required. In all countries contingencies related to the current economic crisis seems to have increased interest in IPS.With the converging forces of strong local leadership, rapid economic changes, and slow cultural shifts, IPS may soon become a priority intervention in Europe for ensuring that people living with serious mental illnesses are able to obtain competitive employment.
Efficacy of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the general ward in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted for hypercapnic acute respiratory failure and pH < 735: a feasibility pilot study
PubMed | University of Bologna and Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Bologna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Internal medicine journal | Year: 2015
To date non-invasive (NIV) mechanical ventilation use is not recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and pH < 7.30 outside a protected environment. We assessed NIV efficacy and feasibility in improving arterial blood gases (ABG) and in-hospital outcome in patients with ARF and severe respiratory acidosis (RA) admitted to an experienced rural medical ward.This paper is a prospective pilot cohort study conducted in the General Medicine Ward of Budrios District Hospital. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with ARF were admitted to our Department, 112, meeting predefined inclusion criteria (pH < 7.35, PaCO2 > 45 mmHg). Patients were divided according to the severity of acidosis into: group A (pH < 7.26), group B (7.26 pH < 7.30) and group C (7.30 pH < 7.35). ABG were assessed at admission, at 2-6 h, 24 h, 48 h and at discharge.Group A included 55 patients (24 men, mean age: 80.8 8.3 years), group B 31 (12 men, mean age: 80.3 9.4 years) and group C 26 (15 men, mean age: 78.6 9.9 years). ABG improved within the first hours in 92/112 (82%) patients, who were all successfully discharged. Eighteen percent (20/112) of the patients died during the hospital stay, no significant difference emerged in mortality rate (MR) within the groups (23%, 16% and 8%, for groups A, B and C, respectively) and between patients with or without pneumonia: 8/29 (27%) versus 12/83 (14%). On multivariable analysis, only age and Glasgow Coma Scale had an impact on the clinical outcome.In a non-highly protected environment such as an experienced medical ward of a rural hospital, NIV is effective not only in patients with mild, but also with severe forms of RA. MR did not vary according to the level of initial pH.