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Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Petrera F.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini | Abeni F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Bertin G.,Alltech France
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to determine the effects of either dietary selenium (Se) source or dose on a range of dairy cow metabolic and hematological profiles and their subsequent relationship with oxidative status and environmental temperature. Forty lactating cows, offered the same basal diet, were blocked by days in milk, milk yield and parity and then randomly allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: negative control (CTRL; 0.098mgSekg-1 DM), two levels of Se yeast (SY) supplementation (0.31 and 0.50mg total Sekg-1 DM), and two levels of sodium selenite (SS) supplementation (0.31 and 0.50mg total Sekg-1 DM). Whole blood samples were taken from all animals at the start of the study (23 March) and after 28, 56, 84, 112, 126, and 140d. Whole blood samples were analyzed for total Se, glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1) and a range of hematological parameters. Plasma was analyzed for total Se, glutathione peroxidase (GPX-3), metabolites related to energy and protein metabolism, concentration of minerals, enzyme activities, acute phase proteins and oxidative status markers. Glutathione peroxidase activity and total Se in whole blood and plasma were greater (P<0.001) in Se supplemented cows than CTRL. The temperature humidity index (THI) values indicate that during the trial cows experienced a slight-mild heat stress. A negative effect of THI on plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), thiol groups, plasma Na and K, and leukocyte count was observed. Conversely, a positive effect of THI on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and GPX-3 activity was observed. Lower values (P<0.05) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) during the hotter period were observed in SY supplemented animals when compared with CTRL and SS. Furthermore, plasma total antioxidants were lower (P<0.05) in SY supplemented animals when compared with SS during the hotter period. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites were also numerically lower in SY when compared to SS. These results could be interpreted as an improvement in the preventive antioxidant systems of cows fed Se yeast. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Abeni F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Stefanini L.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini | Pirlo G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of two average daily gains between 5 and 15. mo of age on body measurements, fat deposition, metabolic profile, interaction with age at first calving, and milk production in first lactation. A total of 141 Italian Friesian heifers, in two experimental herds, were allotted to 2 feeding regimens formulated for a moderate (M, 0.7 kg/d) or an accelerated (H, 0.9 kg/d) average daily gain diet from 5 to 15. mo of age. Half of the heifers on M were programmed to be bred at 15. mo (ME), and half at 18. mo (ML) of age; heifers on H were programmed to be bred at 15. mo of age (HE). Every 28. d, body weight, withers height, hip height, body length, heart girth, and body condition score were recorded. Also each week in one herd from -14 to 70. d post-calving, the body condition score was evaluated. In one herd, metabolic profile was assessed at 9 and 15. mo of age. Growth curve parameters were estimated for the body measurements for each heifer. Metabolic profiles from both ages (9 and 15. mo) were processed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). For the first lactation, milk production and composition were recorded. The M heifers grew slower (0.73 vs. 0.81 kg/d) than H heifers, and this difference was reflected also in a faster heart girth gain in H than M heifers (0.184 vs. 0.169 cm/d). The body condition score of heifers fed on H diet increased faster than that of heifers fed on M diet by 9. mo of age. At this age, plasma concentration of urea, Ca, Na, albumin, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity were greater in H than in M heifers. At 15. mo of age, plasma concentration of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in H than M heifers. At 9. mo, plasma urea concentration was correlated with hip height and heart girth curve parameters. At 15. mo, plasma glucose concentration was correlated with body weight curve parameters. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentration was correlated with hip height curve parameters at both ages, and with body weight curve parameters at 15. mo. The results from the PCA have shown that the first principal component was correlated with the parameters of the growth functions for body weight, hip height, and heart girth. Experimental diet and age at first calving per se did not affect milk production in first lactation, but the peak of milk production of HE heifers occurred 15. d earlier than that of ML heifers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Petrera F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Stefanini L.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini | Abeni F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min-1, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol L-1, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol L-1, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL-1; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day-1, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season. © 2012 ISB.


Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Soriani N.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Panella G.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini | Petrera F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of rumination time (RT) during the peripartum period as a tool for early disease detection. The study was carried out in an experimental freestall barn and involved 23 Italian Friesian cows (9 primiparous and 14 multiparous). The RT was continuously recorded by using an automatic system (Hr-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel), and data were summarized in 2-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from 30. d before calving to 42. d in milk (DIM) to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The liver functionality index, which includes some negative acute-phase proteins and related parameters (albumin, cholesterol, and bilirubin), was used to evaluate the severity of inflammatory conditions occurring around calving. The cows were retrospectively categorized according to RT observed between 3 and 6 DIM into those with the lowest (L) and highest (H) RT. The average RT before calving (-20 to -2. d) was 479. min/d (range 264 to 599), reached a minimum value at calving (30% of RT before calving), and was nearly stable after 15 DIM (on average 452. min/d). Milk yield in early lactation (on average 26.8. kg/d) was positively correlated with RT (r. = 0.33). After calving, compared with H cows, the L cows had higher values of haptoglobin (0.61 and 0.34. g/L at 10 DIM in L and H, respectively) for a longer time, had a greater increase in total bilirubin (9.5 and 5.7. μmol/L at 5 DIM in L and H), had greater reductions of albumin (31.2 and 33.5. g/L at 10 DIM in L and H) and paraoxonase (54 and 76. U/ml at 10 DIM in L and H), and had a slower increase of total cholesterol (2.7 and 3.2. mmol/L at 20 DIM in L and H). Furthermore, a lower average value of liver functionality index was observed in L (-6.97) compared with H (-1.91) cows. These results suggest that severe inflammation around parturition is associated with a slower increase of RT after calving. Furthermore, more than 90% of the cows in the L group had clinical diseases in early lactation compared with 42% of the H cows. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of monitoring RT around calving, and in particular during the first week of lactation, as a way to identify in a timely fashion those cows at a greater risk of developing a disease in early lactation. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


Soriani N.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Panella G.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini | Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

The main objective of this experiment was to monitor the rumination pattern during the summer season in lactating dairy cows and to investigate its relationships with metabolic conditions and physiological markers of heat stress. The study was carried out in an experimental freestall barn located near Piacenza, Italy (45°01'N, 9°40'E; 68. m above sea level), and involved 21 Italian Friesian cows (11 primiparous and 10 multiparous) during the summer season. Rumination time (RT) was recorded by using an automatic system and data were calculated and summarized in 2-h intervals. Microclimatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) inside the barn were recorded during the trial, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. Breathing rates and rectal temperatures were recorded following stable meteorological periods characterized by lower and higher temperatures. At the same times, blood samples were collected to assess biochemical variables related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammatory conditions and enzyme activity. Daily milk yield, body weight, nutritional condition, and health status were also recorded. The average RT was 501. min/d, with no significant differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. According to the microclimatic conditions and physiological markers of heat stress, the cows suffered mild to moderate heat stress during the summer. A negative relationship between daily maximum THI and RT was observed (r. = -0.32), with a reduction of 2.2. min of RT for every daily maximum THI unit over the threshold of daily maximum THI of 76. Most of the rumination occurred during the night (on average the nighttime RT was 63.2% of daytime and nighttime RT); moreover, the proportion of nighttime RT slightly but significantly increased as THI increased. Rumination time throughout the trial was negatively related to breathing rate and positively related to milk yield. Daily maximum THI was negatively correlated with plasma glucose (r. = -0.52) and positively correlated with plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid (r. = 0.26). Values of plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid were positively related to RT through the trial. Our results indicate that hot conditions negatively affect RT and modify its daily pattern. The relationship between RT and the physiological markers used in our trial support the use of RT as a marker of heat stress. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Calamari L.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Petrera F.,Azienda Sperimentale Vittorio Tadini
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This study aimed to determine the effects of either dietary Se source or dose on dairy cow Se status, milk yield and subsequent milk characteristics. Forty lactating cows, offered the same basal diet, were blocked by DIM, milk yield and parity and then randomly allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: negative control (CTRL; 0.098 mg of Se kg- 1 DM), 2 Se yeast supplementation (SY03 and SY05, containing 0.31 and 0.50 mg of total Se kg- 1 DM, respectively), and 2 sodium selenite supplementation (SS03 and SS05, containing 0.31 and 0.50 mg of total Se kg- 1 DM, respectively). During the trial (lasted 140 d), whole blood, plasma, and milk were analyzed for total Se, and whole blood for glutathione peroxidase activity. The proportion of total Se as selenomethionine (SeMet) or selenocysteine (SeCys) in whole blood and milk samples was also determined. Milk constituent, SCC, technological properties and keeping quality were measured on milk samples. Neither source nor dose was seen to affect milk yield, SCC, or milk characteristics. Glutathione peroxidase activity was greater (P < 0.001) in Se supplemented cows than CTRL but no effect of source was observed. Total Se in whole blood, plasma and milk was greater (P < 0.001) in Se yeast than selenite, with higher asymptotic values in Se yeast, and also a greater ratio between Se in milk and Se in blood or plasma (P < 0.001). The time to asymptotic value of total Se in blood and milk was not affected by Se source, although time to asymptotic total Se in plasma was greater in Se yeast than selenite (P < 0.05). The 16.3% of supplemental Se was transferred into milk of SY05 animals whereas only 3.2% in SS05 supplemented animals. In blood SeCys was the main form of Se, and SeMet the main Se form in milk. In blood and in milk SeMet increased only in those animals supplemented with Se yeast, and at the end of the supplementation period values were greater in Se yeast animals than selenite (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate greater levels of Se in the blood and plasma of cows provided Se yeast compared with cows provided selenite, and a greater efficiency of transfer of Se from blood into milk resulting in a greater increase in milk Se concentration. Selenium source affected the proportion of total Se comprised as SeMet and SeCys in blood and milk, indicating further that different Se sources are metabolized by distinctly different mechanisms. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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