Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Villanova d'Asti, Italy

Masala S.,University of Sassari | Cossu D.,University of Sassari | Palermo M.,Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL | Sechi L.A.,University of Sassari
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic β-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP seroreactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. © 2014 Masala et al.


Bongiorno D.,University of Catania | Campanile F.,University of Catania | Mongelli G.,University of Catania | Baldi M.T.,Villa Sofia Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Background: Despite 10 years of clinical use, linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still a rare phenomenon. This study reports the mechanisms of resistance and strain types seen in clusters of linezolid-resistant CoNS from two different hospitals in Italy during the period 2008-09. Methods: Genes associated with linezolid resistance were subjected to molecular analysis and isolates were characterized by PFGE macrorestriction analysis using SmaI. Results: Thirty-three linezolid-resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant CoNS comprising Staphylococcus epidermidis (24), Staphylococcus hominis (5) and Staphylococcus simulans (4) were studied. The isolates showed varying levels of linezolid resistance. Almost all isolates for which linezolid MICs were 64 mg/L possessed point mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, while isolates for which the MICs were 256 mg/L expressed methylase activity at position A2503 mediated by the cfr gene. Overall, the isolates showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs 1-2 mg/L) and 11 of the 33 isolates showed no susceptibility to teicoplanin. These strains were also resistant to chloramphenicol (28 of 33), lincomycin (24 of 33), erythromycin (17 of 33) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (13 of 33). S. epidermidis isolates, showing mutations or methylase modifications, belonged to different PFGE profiles and to two different sequence types (ST2 and ST23), in which the cfr gene was carried on a plasmid of ~50 kb. Conclusions: Clinical CoNS strains with resistance to linezolid and other second-line antibiotics, as well as reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides, have emerged in Italy. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Niegowska M.,University of Sassari | Paccagnini D.,University of Sassari | Burrai C.,Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL | Palermo M.,Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL | Sechi L.A.,University of Sassari
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the prevailing organ-specific autoimmune disease in Sardinia, often complicated with other autoimmune disorders, most commonly type 1 diabetes (T1D). While numerous studies describe levels of anty-thyroid antibodies (Abs) in T1D patients, few papers evaluate the status of anti-islet autoimmunity in subjects affected by HT. Previously, we portrayed Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) as an environmental factor strongly associated with both diseases. In this study, we analyzed plasma of Sardinian HT patients (n=177) and healthy controls (HCs; n=175) for the presence of Abs against proinsulin and MAP-derived homologous epitopes: MAP1,4αgbp157-173/PI64-80 were recognized by 5,08% and 18,64% of HT vs 0,57% and 7,43% of HCs (AUC=0,6 for both; p<0,0003 and 0,002, respectively), whereas the prevalence of Abs against MAP2404c70-85/PI46-61 peptides was higher but not significant in patients when compared to HCs. In women (n=152), Abs against MAP1,4αgbp157-173 were detected in 12,50% of HT vs 2,75% of HCs (AUC=0,63; p<0,0002), while positivity to its human homolog PI64-80 was observed in 16,42% of HT vs 6,42% of HCs (AUC=0,61; p<0,001). In men (n=25), a significant anti-PI46-61 Abs levels were detected in 4% of HT vs none of the HCs (AUC=0,7; p<0,003). Age-related analyses revealed the highest prevalence between 31-40 years old (45,83%) in the total study population and among males (33,33%); in contrast, women had a higher seroreactivity between 51-60 years (42,11%). A further follow-up and determination of anti-islet Abs levels is needed to evaluate the association of immune responses directed against the MAP/PI homologous peptides with progression to overt diabetes in HT subjects. Copyright: © 2015 Niegowska et al.


Pelagotti A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ferrara P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Pescitelli L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Gerlini G.,Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

An optical noninvasive inspection tool is presented to, in vivo, better characterize biological tissues such as human skin. The method proposed exploits a multispectral imaging device to acquire a set of images in the visible and NIR range. This kind of information can be very helpful to improve early diagnosis of melanoma, a very aggressive cutaneous neoplasm, incidence and mortality of which continues to rise worldwide. Currently, noninvasive methods (i.e. dermoscopy) have improved melanoma detection, but the definitive diagnosis is still achieved only by invasive method (istopathological observation of the excised lesion). The multispectral system we developed is capable of imaging layers of structures placed at increasing depth, thanks to the fact that light propagates into the skin and reaches different depths depending on its wavelength. This allows to image many features which are less or not visible in the clinical and dermoscopic examination. A new semeiotics is proposed to describe the content of multispectral images. Dermoscopic criteria can be easily applied to describe each image in the set, however inter-images correlations need new suitable descriptors. The first group of new parameters describes how the dermoscopic features, vary across the set of images. More aspects are then introduced. E.g. the longest wavelength where structures can be detected gives an estimate of the maximum depth reached by the pigmented lesion. While the presence of a bright-to-dark transition between the wavebands in the violet to blue range, reveals the presence of blue-whitish veil, which is a further malignancy marker. © 2013 SPIE.


Pelagotti A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ferrara P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Pescitelli L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Delfino C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2013

Melanoma is a very aggressive cutaneous neoplasm, incidence and mortality of which continues to rise worldwide. Identification of initial melanoma may be difficult because it may be clinically, and sometimes also dermoscopically, indistinguishable from benign lesions. Currently definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological observation of the excised lesion. Several tools have been developed to help detecting malignant lesions. Dermoscopy highlights numerous characteristic features of the lesion and of the pigmented network. The method we propose exploits a multispectral imaging device to acquire a set of images in the visible and NIR range. Thanks to the fact that light propagates into the skin and reaches different depths depending on its wavelength, such a system is capable of imaging layers of structures placed at increasing depths. Therefore a new semeiotics is proposed to describe the content of such images. Dermoscopic criteria can be easily applied to describe each image in the set, however inter-images correlation needs new suitable descriptors. The first group of new parameters describes how the dermoscopic ones, vary across the set of images. More features are then introduced. E.g. the longest wavelength where structures can be detected gives an estimate of the maximum depth reached by the pigmented lesion. While the presence of a bright-to-dark transition between the wavebands in the violet to blue range, reveals the presence of blue-whitish veil, which is a further malignancy marker. © 2013 SPIE.

Discover hidden collaborations