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Barazzoni R.,University of Trieste | Gortan Cappellari G.,University of Trieste | Semolic A.,University of Trieste | Ius M.,University of Trieste | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background & aims: Ghrelin is a gastric hormone circulating in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UG) forms, and higher plasma total ghrelin (TG) and UG may be cross-sectionally associated with lower insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients. The potential value of ghrelin forms in predicting insulin resistance and its time-related changes in community-based population cohorts remains unknown. Methods: We measured TG, AG and calculated UG (TG-AG) in 716 individuals from the North-East-Italy MoMa study (age: 55 ± 9 years, BMI: 29 ± 5 kg/m2, M/F:349/367) to test the hypothesis that circulating TG and UG, but not AG are negatively associated with insulin resistance (HOMA). We further hypothesized that baseline TG and UG negatively predict 5-year HOMA changes in a 350-individual subgroup. Results: Baseline TG and UG were associated negatively with HOMA after adjusting for gender and body mass index (BMI). Baseline gender- and BMI-adjusted TG and UG were also negatively associated with HOMA at 5-year follow-up (n = 350), and changes in TG and UG were negatively associated with changes in HOMA (P < 0.05) after adjustment for anthropometric and metabolic confounders. No statistically significant correlations were observed between AG and baseline or 5-year HOMA. Conclusions: In a North-East Italy community-based population cohort, plasma TG and UG but not AG are negatively associated with HOMA. TG and UG and their changes also independently predict 5-year HOMA changes. TG and UG are therefore novel potential modulators of insulin resistance and may contribute to predict its time-related changes in humans. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Barazzoni R.,University of Trieste | Zanetti M.,University of Trieste | Semolic A.,University of Trieste | Pirulli A.,University of Trieste | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Objective Adipose-secreted retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) circulates in free (active) and transthyretin (TTR)-bound forms and may be associated with obesity-related inflammation. Potential involvement of plasma and adipose RBP4 in systemic inflammation in the absence of obesity and diabetes is unknown. Inflammation reduces survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD) [particularly in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD)], and plasma RBP4 may increase with renal dysfunction. We investigated (i) potential associations between RBP4 and inflammation in CKD and (ii) the role of adipose tissue in this putative interaction. Design Cross-sectional. Patients Nonobese, nondiabetic patients with CKD undergoing conservative (CT: n = 10) or MHD treatment (n = 25) and healthy control subjects (C: n = 11). Renal transplant recipients (n = 5) were studied to further assess the impact of restored near-normal renal function. Measurements Plasma RBP4, TTR and C-reactive protein (CRP), adipose RBP4 expression. Results Plasma RBP4, TTR and CRP were highest in MHD (P < 0·05). Adipose RBP4 mRNA was, however, comparably low in CT and MHD (P < 0·05 vs C), and all parameters were normalized in transplant recipients (P < 0·05 vs MHD). In all subjects (n = 51), creatinine and TTR (P < 0·05) but not adipose RBP4 mRNA were associated with plasma RBP4. Plasma RBP4 but not its adipose expression was in turn associated positively (P < 0·05) with CRP independently of creatinine-TTR. Conclusions High plasma RBP4 and inflammation are clustered in CKD in the absence of obesity and diabetes and are normalized by transplantation. Adipose RBP4 expression is not involved in plasma RBP4 elevation, which appears to be mainly because of passive accumulation, or in CKD-associated inflammation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Lapillonne A.,University of Paris Descartes | Lapillonne A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Carnielli V.P.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti | Embleton N.D.,Newcastle Neonatal Service | Mihatsch W.,Pediatric Clinic Harlaching
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: The level of adherence to guidelines should be explored particularly in preterm infants for whom poor nutrition has major effects on outcomes in later life. The objective was to evaluate compliance to international guidelines for parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of four European countries. Design: Clinical practice survey by means of a questionnaire addressing routine PN protocols, awareness and implementation of guidelines. Setting: NICUs in the UK, Italy, Germany and France. Participants: One senior physician per unit; 199 units which represent 74% of the NICUs of the four countries. Primary outcome measure: Adherence of unit protocol to international guidelines. Secondary outcome measure: Factors that influence adherence to guidelines. Results: 80% of the respondents stated that they were aware of some PN clinical practice guidelines. For amino acid infusion (AA), 63% of the respondents aimed to initiate AA on D0, 38% aimed to administer an initial dose ≥1.5 g/kg/day and 91% aimed for a target dose of 3 or 4 g/kg/day, as recommended. For parenteral lipids, 90% of the respondents aimed to initiate parenteral lipids during the first 3 days of life, 39% aimed to use an initial dose ≥1.0 g/kg/day and 76% defined the target dose as 3-4 g/kg/day, as recommended. Significant variations in PN protocols were observed among countries, but the type of hospital or the number of admissions per year had only a marginal impact on the PN protocols. Conclusions: Most respondents indicated that their clinical practice was based on common guidelines. However, the initiation of PN is frequently not compliant with current recommendations, with the main differences being observed during the first days of life. Continuous education focusing on PN practice is needed, and greater efforts are required to disseminate and implement international guidelines.

Calabrese R.,University of Trieste | Beltrame M.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti | Accardo A.,University of Trieste
Journal of Digital Imaging | Year: 2016

Today, many hospitals have a running enterprise picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and their administrators should have the tools to measure the system activity and, in particular, how much it is used. The information would be valuable for decision-makers to address asset management and the development of policies for its correct utilization and eventually start training initiatives to get the best in resource utilization and operators’ satisfaction. On the economic side, a quantitative method to measure the usage of the workstations would be desirable to better redistribute existing resources and plan the purchase of new ones. The paper exploits in an unconventional way the potential of the IHE Audit Trail and Node Authentication (ATNA) profile: it uses the data generated in order to safeguard the security of patient data and to retrieve information about the workload of each PACS workstation. The method uses the traces recorded, according to the profile, for each access to image data and to calculate how much each station is used. The results, constituted by measures of the frequency of PACS station usage suitably classified and presented according to a convenient format for decision-makers, are encouraging. In the time of the spending review, the careful management of available resources is the top priority for a healthcare organization. Thanks to our work, a common medium such as the ATNA profile appears a very useful resource for purposes other than those for which it was born. This avoids additional investments in management tools and allows optimization of resources at no cost. © 2016 Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine

Busilacchi A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri M.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti | Ulisse S.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti | Gesuita R.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 4 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2016

Purpose: To evaluate the sonoelastographic features of Achilles tendon healing after percutaneous treatment using real-time sonoelastography, a new tool able to quantify deformation in biological tissues. Methods: Patients with atraumatic Achilles tendon ruptures, treated with a percutaneous technique, were assessed. Sonoelastographic evaluations were performed at the myotendinous junction, tendon body/lesion site and osteotendinous junction, both for the operated and contralateral side, at 40 days, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Using standard regions of interest, the “strain index” (SI) was calculated as an indicator of tendon elasticity. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the ATRS questionnaire at 6 months and 1 year post-operatively and correlated with sonoelastographic findings. Sixty healthy tendons from 30 volunteers were used to provide a healthy control range. Results: Twenty-five patients were recruited for this study. The SI in treated tendons showed progressive stiffening over time, especially at myotendinous junction and at the site of the sutured lesion, resulting in significantly higher stiffness than both the contralateral tendon and healthy volunteers. Peak thickness of treated tendons occurred at 6 months, with a tendency to reduce at 1 year, while never achieving a normal physiological state. Greatest remodelling was seen at the lesion site. The contralateral tendon showed significant thickening at the myotendinous and osteotendinous junctions. The SI of the contralateral tendon was found to be stiffer than physiological values found in the control group. ATRS score improved significantly between 6 months and 1 year, being negatively correlated with the SI (p < 0.001). Conclusion: RTSE showed that operatively treated Achilles tendons become progressively stiffer during follow-up, while the ATRS score improved. From a biomechanical point of view, at 1 year after surgery Achilles tendons did not show a “restitutio ad integrum”. Real-time sonoelastography provides more qualitative and quantitative details in the diagnostics and follow-up of Achilles tendon conditions as the post-operative evolution of the repairing tissue. Level of evidence: Diagnostic and therapeutic study, Level III. © 2014, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).

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