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Filippi M.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Agosta F.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Barkhof F.,VU University Amsterdam | Dubois B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: The European Federation of the Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines on the use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis and management of dementia are designed to revise and expand previous EFNS recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to provide an overview of the evidence for the use of neuroimaging techniques in non-AD dementias, as well as general recommendations that apply to all types of dementia in clinical practice. Methods: The task force working group reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews, published before April 2012. The evidence was classified, and consensus recommendations were given and graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. Results: Structural imaging, which should be performed at least once in the diagnostic work-up of patients with cognitive impairment, serves to exclude other potentially treatable diseases, to recognize vascular lesions and to identify specific findings to help distinguish different forms of neurodegenerative types of dementia. Although typical cases of dementia may not benefit from routine functional imaging, these tools are recommended in those cases where diagnosis remains in doubt after clinical and structural imaging work-up and in particular clinical settings. Amyloid imaging is likely to find clinical utility in several fields, including the stratification of patients with mild cognitive impairment into those with and without underlying AD and the evaluation of atypical AD presentations. Conclusions: A number of recommendations and good practice points are made to improve the diagnosis of AD and other dementias. © 2012 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

Gori F.,University of Florence | Mulinacci B.,University of Florence | Massai L.,University of Florence | Avolio C.,University of Foggia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2011

Antibodies to MOG in serum have a dubious prognostic value in multiple sclerosis. The MOG recombinant protein conformational properties relevant to the antigenic activity are unknown. We employed a solid-phase ELISA based on a product (rMOGED(His)6) expressed in E. coli after subcloning the cDNA of the extracellular domain of rat MOG, performing a refolding procedure on column and affinity purification. The far-UV Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra of rMOGED(His)6 showed a β-sheet, a characteristic feature of the Ig-fold. However, in MS sera and controls we failed to detected IgM or IgG antibodies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Filippi M.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Agosta F.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Frisoni G.B.,Irccs Centro San Giovanni Of Dio Fatebenefratelli | de Stefano N.,University of Siena | And 8 more authors.
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2012

Quantitative outcome variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are of interest because of their low longitudinal variability compared with that of repeated clinical and cognitive measurements. Conventional MR-based volumetry of structures within and beyond the medial temporal lobe has proven to be useful in the diagnostic work up of early AD patients, and measures of atrophy have the potential to monitor the efficacy of disease-modifying agents. The extensive application of new non-conventional MR-based techniques to the study of AD, such as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor MRI, and functional MRI, has undoubtedly improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, and might lead to the identification of additional useful markers of disease progression. This review summarizes the main results obtained from the application of conventional and non-conventional MRI in AD patients, and supports their more extensive use in studies of disease evolution and clinical trials. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Detti B.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Careggi | Scoccianti S.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Careggi | Cassani S.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Careggi | Cipressi S.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Careggi | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Aim: In men with adverse pathology after radical prostatectomy, the most appropriate timing to administer radiotherapy (RT) remains a topic of debate. We analyzed in terms of efficacy, prognostic factors and toxicity the two therapeutic strategies: immediate postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and salvage radiotherapy (SART). Materials and methods: Between January 1995 and November 2010, 307 patients underwent adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy, after prostatectomy. Results: In the PORT group, 42 patients (20.7 %) had biochemical failure, with a median time to biochemical failure of 1.8 years; two parameters (age at diagnosis and PSA pre-RT) resulted to be significant at the survival analysis for overall survival (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). In the SART group, 33 patients (31.7 %) had biochemical relapse; sixteen patients died of prostate cancer; postoperative hormones therapy, conformal radiotherapy and level of PSA pre-RT >1.0 ng/ml resulted to be significant at the survival analysis, p = 0.009, p = 0.039 and p = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Our study is limited by its retrospective and nonrandomized design. As such, decisions to treat with adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy and the time to initiate therapy were based on patient preference and physician counseling. Our recommendation is to suggest adjuvant radiotherapy for all patients with adverse prognostic factors and to reserve salvage radiotherapy for low-risk patients, when the biochemical recurrence occurs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Prezioso D.,University of Naples Federico II | Strazzullo P.,University of Naples Federico II | Lotti T.,University of Naples Federico II | Bianchi G.,Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico di Modena | And 25 more authors.
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia | Year: 2015

Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≤1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day) low-salt (< 2 g/day) diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day) is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day) is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

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