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Storey R.F.,University of Sheffield | Kotha J.,CirQuest Labs LLC | Smyth S.S.,University of Kentucky | Moliterno D.J.,University of Kentucky | And 18 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2014

Vorapaxar is an antagonist of the protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), the principal platelet thrombin receptor. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction (TRACER) trial evaluated vorapaxar compared to placebo in non-ST-elevation (NSTE)-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. It was the study's objective to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of vorapaxar versus placebo that included aspirin or a thienopyridine or, frequently, a combination of both agents in NSTE-ACS patients. In a substudy involving 249 patients, platelet aggregation was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) in 85 subjects (41 placebo, 44 vorapaxar) using the agonists thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP, 15 μM), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 20 μM), and the combination of collagen-related peptide (2.5 μg/ml) + ADP (5 μM) + TRAP (15 μM) (CAT). VerifyNow® IIb/IIIa and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assays were performed, and platelet PAR-1 expression, plasma platelet/endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers were determined before and during treatment. LTA responses to TRAP and CAT and VerifyNow results were markedly inhibited by vorapaxar. Maximal LTA response to TRAP (median, interquartile range) 2 hours post loading dose: placebo 68% (53-75%) and vorapaxar 3% (2-6%), p<0.0001. ADP inhibition was greater in the vorapaxar group at 4 hours and one month (p<0.01). In contrast to the placebo group, PAR-1 receptor number in the vorapaxar group at one month was significantly lower than the baseline (179 vs 225; p=0.004). There were significant changes in selected biomarker levels between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, vorapaxar caused a potent inhibition of PAR-1-mediated platelet aggregation. Further studies are needed to explore vorapaxar effect on P2Y12 inhibition, PAR-1 expression and biomarkers and its contribution to clinical outcomes. © Schattauer 2014. Source

Nicoli F.,University of Ferrara | Finessi V.,University of Ferrara | Sicurella M.,University of Ferrara | Sicurella M.,University of Padua | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

T cells are functionally compromised during HIV infection despite their increased activation and proliferation. Although T cell hyperactivation is one of the best predictive markers for disease progression, its causes are poorly understood. Anti-tat natural immunity as well as anti-tat antibodies induced by Tat immunization protect from progression to AIDS and reverse signs of immune activation in HIV-infected patients suggesting a role of Tat in T cell dysfunctionality. The Tat protein of HIV-1 is known to induce, in vitro, the activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes, but its role on CD8+ T cells and how these effects modulate, in vivo, the immune response to pathogens are not known. To characterize the role of Tat in T cell hyperactivation and dysfunction, we examined the effect of Tat on CD8+ T cell responses and antiviral immunity in different ex vivo and in vivo models of antigenic stimulation, including HSV infection. We demonstrate for the first time that the presence of Tat during priming of CD8+ T cells favors the activation of antigen-specific CTLs. Effector CD8+ T cells generated in the presence of Tat undergo an enhanced and prolonged expansion that turns to a partial dysfunctionality at the peak of the response, and worsens HSV acute infection. Moreover, Tat favors the development of effector memory CD8 + T cells and a transient loss of B cells, two hallmarks of the chronic immune activation observed in HIV-infected patients. Our data provide evidence that Tat affects CD8+ T cell responses to co-pathogens and suggest that Tat may contribute to the CD8+ T cell hyperactivation observed in HIV-infected individuals. © 2013 Nicoli et al. Source

Deray G.,Pitie Salpetriere Hospital | Rouviere O.,Vascular Imaging | Rouviere O.,University of Lyon | Bacigalupo L.,University of Lyon | And 12 more authors.
European Radiology | Year: 2013

Objective: To prospectively compare the renal safety of meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to a control group (unenhanced MRI) in high-risk patients. Methods: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) scheduled for MRI procedures were screened. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with an elevation of serum creatinine levels, measured 72 ± 24 h after the MRI procedure, by at least 25 % or 44.2 μmol/l (0.5 mg/dl) from baseline. A non-inferiority margin of the between-group difference was set at -15 % for statistical analysis of the primary endpoint. Main secondary endpoints were the variation in serum creatinine and eGFR values between baseline and 72 ± 24 h after MRI and the percentage of patients with a decrease in eGFR of at least 25 % from baseline. Patients were screened for signs of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at 3-month follow-up. Results: Among the 114 evaluable patients, one (1.4 %) in the Gd-DOTA-MRI group and none in the control group met the criteria of the primary endpoint [Δ = -1.4 %, 95%CI = (-7.9 %; 6.7 %)]. Non-inferiority was therefore demonstrated (P = 0.001). No clinically significant differences were observed between groups for the secondary endpoints. No serious safety events (including NSF) were noted. Conclusion: Meglumine gadoterate did not affect renal function and was a safe contrast agent in patients with CKD. Key points: • Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a potential problem following gadolinium administration for MRI. • Meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA) appears safe, even in patients with chronic kidney disease. • Gd-DOTA only caused a temporary creatinine level increase in 1/70 such patients. • No case or sign of NSF was detected at 3-month follow-up. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

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