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Palma di Montechiaro, Italy

Askarieh G.,Gothenburg University | Alsio A.,Gothenburg University | Pugnale P.,University of Geneva | Negro F.,University of Geneva | And 10 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

High systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10) at onset of combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection predict poor outcome, but details regarding the impact of IP-10 on the reduction of HCV RNA during therapy remain unclear. In the present study, we correlated pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver biopsies (n = 73) and plasma (n = 265) with HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (DITTO-HCV). Low levels of plasma or intrahepatic IP-10 were strongly associated with a pronounced reduction of HCV RNA during the first 24 hours of treatment in all patients (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively) as well as when patients were grouped as genotype 1 or 4 (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.01) and 2 or 3 (P = 0.002, and P = 0.02). Low plasma levels of IP-10 also were predictive of the absolute reduction of HCV RNA (P < 0.0001) and the maximum reduction of HCV RNA in the first 4 days of treatment (P < 0.0001) as well as sustained virological response (genotype 1/4; P < 0.0001). To corroborate the relationship between early viral decline and IP-10, pretreatment plasma samples from an independent phase IV trial for HCV genotypes 2/3 (NORDynamIC trial; n = 382) were analyzed. The results confirmed an association between IP-10 and the immediate reduction of HCV RNA in response to therapy (P = 0.006). In contrast, pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver or in plasma did not affect the decline of HCV RNA between days 8 and 29, i.e., the second-phase decline, or later time points in any of these cohorts. Conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, low levels of intrahepatic and systemic IP-10 predict a favorable first-phase decline of HCV RNA during therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotypes of HCV. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Bochud P.-Y.,University Hospital | Bibert S.,University Hospital | Negro F.,University of Geneva | Haagmans B.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with IL28B influence the outcome of peginterferon-α/ribavirin therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We analyzed the kinetics of HCV RNA during therapy as a function of IL28B SNPs. Methods: IL28B SNPs rs8099917, rs12979860, and rs12980275 were genotyped in 242 HCV treatment-naïve Caucasian patients (67% genotype 1, 28% genotype 2 or 3) receiving peginterferon-α2a (180 μg weekly) and ribavirin (1000-1200 mg daily) with serial HCV-RNA quantifications. Associations between IL28B polymorphisms and early viral kinetics were assessed, accounting for relevant covariates. Results: In the multivariate analyses for genotype 1 patients, the T allele of rs12979860 (T rs12979860) was an independent risk factor for a less pronounced first phase HCV RNA decline (log 10 0.89 IU/ml among T carriers vs. 2.06 among others, adjusted p <0.001) and lower rapid (15% vs. 38%, adjusted p = 0.007) and sustained viral response rates (48% vs. 66%, adjusted p <0.001). In univariate analyses, T rs12979860 was also associated with a reduced second phase decline (p = 0.002), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for the first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.8). In genotype 2/3 patients, T rs12979860 was associated with a reduced first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.04), but not with a second phase decline. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in IL28B are strongly associated with the first phase viral decline during peginterferon-α/ ribavirin therapy of chronic HCV infection, irrespective of HCV genotype. © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Floridia M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Tamburrini E.,Catholic University | Tibaldi C.,University of Turin | Anzidei G.,I.N.M.I. Lazzaro Spallanzani | And 8 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

There is limited information about the determinants of voluntary pregnancy termination (VPT) among women with HIV in the current context of wide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To investigate this issue, we analysed the characteristics of a series of VPTs which occurred in an ongoing observational national study of pregnant women with HIV between 2002 and 2008. Sixty-three cases of VPT were compared with 334 pregnancies not ending in a VPT concurrently reported from the same centres. VPTs showed significant associations with unplanned pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]: 24.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-101.2), previous pregnancies reported to the study (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.30-4.82), lower CD4 counts (270 vs. 420 cells/mm3), and HIV-infected current partner (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.97-3.63). Our data indicate that there is still the need to improve pregnancy planning among women with HIV, and strongly suggest that interventions aimed at improving pregnancy planning might also reduce the occurrence of VPT. Women with low CD4 counts and those with an HIV-infected partner represent two groups that should receive particular attention in preventive strategies. Source

Floridia M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Ravizza M.,S. Paolo Hospital | Pinnetti C.,Catholic University | Tibaldi C.,University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
HIV Clinical Trials | Year: 2010

Purpose: To investigate the risk factors for an HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load above 400 copies/mL in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Data from a large national study were used. The possible determinants were assessed in univariate analyses and in a multivariate logistic regression model in order to adjust for possible confounders. Results: Among 662 pregnancies followed between 2001 and 2008, 131 (19.8%) had an HIV-1 plasma copy number above 400/mL at the third trimester of pregnancy. In the multivariate analysis, the variables significantly associated with this occurrence were earlier calendar year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per additional calendar year, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.63-0.77; P < .001), lower CD4 count at enrollment (AOR per 100 cells lower, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27; P < .001), HIV-1 RNA levels above 400 copies per mL at enrollment (AOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.50-3.33; P < .001), and treatment modification during pregnancy (AOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07-2.57; P = .024). Conclusions: Treatment changes in pregnancy significantly increase the risk of an incomplete viral suppression at the end of pregnancy. In HIV-infected women of childbearing age, proper preconception care, which includes the preferential prescription of regimens with the best safety profile in pregnancy, is likely to prevent an incomplete viral suppression at the end of pregnancy. © 2010 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc. Source

Baroncelli S.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Tamburrini E.,Catholic University | Ravizza M.,S. Paolo Hospital | Pinnetti C.,Catholic University | And 10 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011

Pregnancy has been associated with a low risk of HIV disease progression. Most pregnancies with HIV currently involve women who have not experienced AIDS-defining events, and are clinically classified as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) groups A or B. We evaluated the main maternal outcomes among pregnant women with more advanced HIV disease, defined by CDC-C disease stage. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. A total of 566 HIV-infected mothers, 515 in stage A or B (CDC-AB group) and 51 in stage C (CDC-C group) were evaluated. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. No differences were found in the main maternal and neonatal outcomes. Most of the women achieved viral suppression at end of pregnancy (>1000 copies per milliliter: CDC-C: 17.2%; CDC-AB: 13.7%). One year after delivery, HIV replication (HIV-RNA >1000 copies per milliliter) was present in 11.5% of CDC-AB women and 30.0% CDC-C women. Despite lower initial CD4 counts (300 versus 481 cells per microliter), CDC-C women maintained stable CD4 levels during pregnancy, and 1 year after delivery, a significant increase in CD4 count from preconception values was observed in both groups (CDC-C: +72 cells per microliter, p=0.031; CDC-AB: +43 cells per microliter, p<0.001). Only one AIDS event occurred in a woman with a previous diagnosis of AIDS. In CDC-C women, pregnancy is not associated with an increased rate of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes, and a good immunovirologic response can be expected. During postpartum care, women with more advanced HIV infection should receive particular care to prevent loss of virologic suppression. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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