Time filter

Source Type

Palma di Montechiaro, Italy

Askarieh G.,Gothenburg University | Alsio A.,Gothenburg University | Pugnale P.,University of Geneva | Negro F.,University of Geneva | And 10 more authors.

High systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10) at onset of combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection predict poor outcome, but details regarding the impact of IP-10 on the reduction of HCV RNA during therapy remain unclear. In the present study, we correlated pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver biopsies (n = 73) and plasma (n = 265) with HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (DITTO-HCV). Low levels of plasma or intrahepatic IP-10 were strongly associated with a pronounced reduction of HCV RNA during the first 24 hours of treatment in all patients (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively) as well as when patients were grouped as genotype 1 or 4 (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.01) and 2 or 3 (P = 0.002, and P = 0.02). Low plasma levels of IP-10 also were predictive of the absolute reduction of HCV RNA (P < 0.0001) and the maximum reduction of HCV RNA in the first 4 days of treatment (P < 0.0001) as well as sustained virological response (genotype 1/4; P < 0.0001). To corroborate the relationship between early viral decline and IP-10, pretreatment plasma samples from an independent phase IV trial for HCV genotypes 2/3 (NORDynamIC trial; n = 382) were analyzed. The results confirmed an association between IP-10 and the immediate reduction of HCV RNA in response to therapy (P = 0.006). In contrast, pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver or in plasma did not affect the decline of HCV RNA between days 8 and 29, i.e., the second-phase decline, or later time points in any of these cohorts. Conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, low levels of intrahepatic and systemic IP-10 predict a favorable first-phase decline of HCV RNA during therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotypes of HCV. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Bochud P.-Y.,University Hospital | Bibert S.,University Hospital | Negro F.,University of Geneva | Haagmans B.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology

Background & Aims: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with IL28B influence the outcome of peginterferon-α/ribavirin therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We analyzed the kinetics of HCV RNA during therapy as a function of IL28B SNPs. Methods: IL28B SNPs rs8099917, rs12979860, and rs12980275 were genotyped in 242 HCV treatment-naïve Caucasian patients (67% genotype 1, 28% genotype 2 or 3) receiving peginterferon-α2a (180 μg weekly) and ribavirin (1000-1200 mg daily) with serial HCV-RNA quantifications. Associations between IL28B polymorphisms and early viral kinetics were assessed, accounting for relevant covariates. Results: In the multivariate analyses for genotype 1 patients, the T allele of rs12979860 (T rs12979860) was an independent risk factor for a less pronounced first phase HCV RNA decline (log 10 0.89 IU/ml among T carriers vs. 2.06 among others, adjusted p <0.001) and lower rapid (15% vs. 38%, adjusted p = 0.007) and sustained viral response rates (48% vs. 66%, adjusted p <0.001). In univariate analyses, T rs12979860 was also associated with a reduced second phase decline (p = 0.002), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for the first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.8). In genotype 2/3 patients, T rs12979860 was associated with a reduced first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.04), but not with a second phase decline. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in IL28B are strongly associated with the first phase viral decline during peginterferon-α/ ribavirin therapy of chronic HCV infection, irrespective of HCV genotype. © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Floridia M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Tamburrini E.,Catholic University | Tibaldi C.,University of Turin | Anzidei G.,I.N.M.I. Lazzaro Spallanzani | And 8 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV

There is limited information about the determinants of voluntary pregnancy termination (VPT) among women with HIV in the current context of wide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To investigate this issue, we analysed the characteristics of a series of VPTs which occurred in an ongoing observational national study of pregnant women with HIV between 2002 and 2008. Sixty-three cases of VPT were compared with 334 pregnancies not ending in a VPT concurrently reported from the same centres. VPTs showed significant associations with unplanned pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]: 24.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-101.2), previous pregnancies reported to the study (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.30-4.82), lower CD4 counts (270 vs. 420 cells/mm3), and HIV-infected current partner (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.97-3.63). Our data indicate that there is still the need to improve pregnancy planning among women with HIV, and strongly suggest that interventions aimed at improving pregnancy planning might also reduce the occurrence of VPT. Women with low CD4 counts and those with an HIV-infected partner represent two groups that should receive particular attention in preventive strategies. Source

Floridia M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Ravizza M.,S. Paolo Hospital | Pinnetti C.,Catholic University | Tibaldi C.,University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
HIV Clinical Trials

Purpose: To investigate the risk factors for an HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load above 400 copies/mL in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Data from a large national study were used. The possible determinants were assessed in univariate analyses and in a multivariate logistic regression model in order to adjust for possible confounders. Results: Among 662 pregnancies followed between 2001 and 2008, 131 (19.8%) had an HIV-1 plasma copy number above 400/mL at the third trimester of pregnancy. In the multivariate analysis, the variables significantly associated with this occurrence were earlier calendar year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per additional calendar year, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.63-0.77; P < .001), lower CD4 count at enrollment (AOR per 100 cells lower, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27; P < .001), HIV-1 RNA levels above 400 copies per mL at enrollment (AOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.50-3.33; P < .001), and treatment modification during pregnancy (AOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07-2.57; P = .024). Conclusions: Treatment changes in pregnancy significantly increase the risk of an incomplete viral suppression at the end of pregnancy. In HIV-infected women of childbearing age, proper preconception care, which includes the preferential prescription of regimens with the best safety profile in pregnancy, is likely to prevent an incomplete viral suppression at the end of pregnancy. © 2010 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc. Source

Baroncelli S.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Galluzzo C.M.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Weimer L.E.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Pirillo M.F.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Objectives: To evaluate the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in proviral DNA of patients during maraviroc-based therapy. Methods: Fourteen heavily high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with a CCR5 Trofile profile were monitored over a 24 month period from the start of maraviroc therapy. Whole-blood samples were obtained at different timepoints, and coreceptor tropism was determined for proviral DNA from the V3-loop region sequence using the Geno2Pheno algorithm [false positive rate (FPR): 20%]. Results: At the start of maraviroc treatment, 13/14 patients were viraemic (median: 4.33 log copies/mL). Concordance in R5 tropism (R5/R5) was observed between circulating HIV-RNA (Trofile) and HIV-DNA provirus in 10/14 patients (median FPR=54.0%), while 4 patients showed a CXCR4-tropic R5/X4 variant in their provirus (FPR: 5.8%, 5.7%, 16.6% and 1.1%, respectively). All R5/R5 patients showed a stable HIV-1 DNA coreceptor usage. Two out of four R5/X4 patients showed a tropism shift in their archived provirus and, after 6 months a prevalence of R5-tropic virus was detected in DNA. The other two R5/X4 patients harboured the 11/25 genotype, and maintained X4 tropism in provirus during the study. Virological response did not reveal differences in RNA decay and CD4+ cell recovery in patients with discordant tropism. Conclusions: A relatively good correlation between RNA and DNA tropism was observed at baseline. Proviral DNA tropism remained stable over 24 months of maraviroc-based therapy, indicating that determination of proviral DNA V3 sequence could be used in tropism prediction in clinical practice. The data also confirm the importance of the 11/25 rule in predicting viral tropism. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Discover hidden collaborations