Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma

Palma di Montechiaro, Italy

Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma

Palma di Montechiaro, Italy
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Floridia M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Ravizza M.,University of Milan | Masuelli G.,University of Turin | Giacomet V.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Background: Atazanavir and lopinavir represent the main HIV protease inhibitors recommended in pregnancy, but comparative data in pregnant women are limited. Methods: Women from a national observational study, exposed in pregnancy to either atazanavir or lopinavir, were compared for glucose and lipid profiles, liver function tests, CD4 count, HIV RNA and main pregnancy outcomes. Statistical methods included univariate and multivariable analyses. Results: The study population included 428 pregnancies (lopinavir, 322; atazanavir, 106). The lopinavir group was characterized by higher rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and treatment indication for maternal health, lower CD4 counts, higher HIV RNA levels, less frequent antiretroviral treatment at conception and shorter duration of drug exposure during pregnancy. No differences in pregnancy outcomes, glucose metabolism and weight gain were observed. The two groups also showed in a multivariable analysis similar odds for detectable HIV RNA in the third trimester (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.35-2.10, P1/40.730). Total lipid levels were significantly higher in the lopinavir group (median values in the third trimester 239 versus 221 mg/dL for total cholesterol and 226 versus 181 mg/dL for triglycerides; P<0.001 for both comparisons) and bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the atazanavir group (1.53 versus 0.46 mg/dL, P<0.001). Conclusions: In this observational study atazanavir and lopinavir showed similar safety and activity in pregnancy, with no differences in the main pregnancy outcomes. Atazanavir usewas associated with a better lipid profile and with higher bilirubin levels. Overall, the study findings confirm that these two HIV protease inhibitors represent equally valid alternative options. © The Author 2013.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Floridia M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Tamburrini E.,Catholic University | Tibaldi C.,University of Turin | Anzidei G.,I.N.M.I. Lazzaro Spallanzani | And 8 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

There is limited information about the determinants of voluntary pregnancy termination (VPT) among women with HIV in the current context of wide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To investigate this issue, we analysed the characteristics of a series of VPTs which occurred in an ongoing observational national study of pregnant women with HIV between 2002 and 2008. Sixty-three cases of VPT were compared with 334 pregnancies not ending in a VPT concurrently reported from the same centres. VPTs showed significant associations with unplanned pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]: 24.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-101.2), previous pregnancies reported to the study (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.30-4.82), lower CD4 counts (270 vs. 420 cells/mm3), and HIV-infected current partner (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.97-3.63). Our data indicate that there is still the need to improve pregnancy planning among women with HIV, and strongly suggest that interventions aimed at improving pregnancy planning might also reduce the occurrence of VPT. Women with low CD4 counts and those with an HIV-infected partner represent two groups that should receive particular attention in preventive strategies.

PubMed | University of Padua, University of Bari, Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, Instituto Superiore Of Sanita and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: HIV clinical trials | Year: 2014

To evaluate the prevalence and consequences of late antenatal booking (13 or more weeks gestation) in a national observational study of pregnant women with HIV.The clinical and demographic characteristics associated with late booking were evaluated in univariate analyses using the Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative data and the chi-square test for categorical data. The associations that were found were re-evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birthweight, nonelective cesarean section, birth defects, undetectable (<50 copies/mL) HIV plasma viral load at third trimester, delivery complications, and gender-adjusted and gestational age-adjusted Z scores for birthweight.Rate of late booking among 1,643 pregnancies was 32.9%. This condition was associated with younger age, African provenance, diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy, and less antiretroviral exposure. Undetectable HIV RNA at third trimester and preterm delivery were significantly more prevalent with earlier booking (67.1% vs 46.3%, P < .001, and 23.2% vs 17.6, P = .010, respectively), whereas complications of delivery were more common with late booking (8.2% vs 5.0%, P = .013). Multivariable analyses confirmed an independent role of late booking in predicting detectable HIV RNA at third trimester (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; P < .001) and delivery complications (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8; P = .005).Late antenatal booking was associated with detectable HIV RNA in late pregnancy and with complications of delivery. Measures should be taken to ensure an earlier entry into antenatal care, particularly for African women, and to facilitate access to counselling and antenatal services. These measures can significantly improve pregnancy management and reduce morbidity and complications in pregnant women with HIV.

PubMed | Instituto Superiore Of Sanita, University of Bari, Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, University of Pavia and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Infection | Year: 2016

To provide information about main pregnancy outcomes in HIV-HCV coinfected women and about the possible interactions between HIV and HCV in this particular population.Data from a multicenter observational study of pregnant women with HIV, conducted in Italian University and Hospital Clinics between 2001 and 2015, were used. Eligibility criteria for analysis were HCV coinfection and at least one detectable plasma HCV-RNA viral load measured during pregnancy. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square or the Fisher test and quantitative variables using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Spearmans coefficient was used to evaluate correlations between quantitative variables.Among 105 women with positive HCV-RNA, median HCV viral load was substantially identical at the three trimesters (5.68, 5.45, and 5.86 log IU/ml, respectively), and 85.7 % of the women had at least one HCV-RNA value >5 log IU/ml. Rate of preterm delivery was 28.6 % with HCV-RNA <5 log IU/ml and 43.2 % with HCV-RNA >5log (p = 0.309). Compared to women with term delivery, women with preterm delivery had higher median HCV-RNA levels (third trimester: 6.00 vs. 5.62 log IU/ml, p = 0.037). Third trimester HIV-RNA levels were below 50 copies/ml in 47.7 % of the cases. No cases of vertical HIV transmission occurred. Rate of HCV transmission was 9.0 % and occurred only with HCV-RNA levels >5 log IU/ml.Coinfection with HIV and HCV has relevant consequences in pregnancy: HIV coinfection is associated with high HCV-RNA levels that might favour HCV transmission, and HCV infection might further increase the risk of preterm delivery in women with HIV. HCV/HIV coinfected women should be considered a population at high risk of adverse outcomes.

Lagging M.,Gothenburg University | Askarieh G.,Gothenburg University | Negro F.,University of Geneva | Bibert S.,University of Lausanne | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: High baseline levels of IP-10 predict a slower first phase decline in HCV RNA and a poor outcome following interferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Several recent studies report that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) adjacent to IL28B predict spontaneous resolution of HCV infection and outcome of treatment among HCV genotype 1 infected patients. Methods and Findings: In the present study, we correlated the occurrence of variants at three such SNPs (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) with pretreatment plasma IP-10 and HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (HCV-DITTO) involving 253 Caucasian patients. The favorable SNP variants (CC, AA, and TT, respectively) were associated with lower baseline IP-10 (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and were less common among HCV genotype 1 infected patients than genotype 2/3 (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P = 0.01). Patients carrying favorable SNP genotypes had higher baseline viral load than those carrying unfavorable variants (P = 0.0013, P = 0.029, P = 0.0004 respectively). Among HCV genotype 1 infected carriers of the favorable C, A, or T alleles, IP-10 below 150 pg/mL significantly predicted a more pronounced reduction of HCV RNA from day 0 to 4 (first phase decline), which translated into increased rates of RVR (62%, 53%, and 39%) and SVR (85%, 76%, and 75% respectively) among homozygous carriers with baseline IP-10 below 150 pg/mL. In multivariate analyses of genotype 1-infected patients, baseline IP-10 and C genotype at rs12979860 independently predicted the first phase viral decline and RVR, which in turn independently predicted SVR. Conclusions: Concomitant assessment of pretreatment IP-10 and IL28B-related SNPs augments the prediction of the first phase decline in HCV RNA, RVR, and final therapeutic outcome. © 2011 Lagging et al.

Askarieh G.,Gothenburg University | Alsio A.,Gothenburg University | Pugnale P.,University of Geneva | Negro F.,University of Geneva | And 10 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

High systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10) at onset of combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection predict poor outcome, but details regarding the impact of IP-10 on the reduction of HCV RNA during therapy remain unclear. In the present study, we correlated pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver biopsies (n = 73) and plasma (n = 265) with HCV RNA throughout therapy within a phase III treatment trial (DITTO-HCV). Low levels of plasma or intrahepatic IP-10 were strongly associated with a pronounced reduction of HCV RNA during the first 24 hours of treatment in all patients (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively) as well as when patients were grouped as genotype 1 or 4 (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.01) and 2 or 3 (P = 0.002, and P = 0.02). Low plasma levels of IP-10 also were predictive of the absolute reduction of HCV RNA (P < 0.0001) and the maximum reduction of HCV RNA in the first 4 days of treatment (P < 0.0001) as well as sustained virological response (genotype 1/4; P < 0.0001). To corroborate the relationship between early viral decline and IP-10, pretreatment plasma samples from an independent phase IV trial for HCV genotypes 2/3 (NORDynamIC trial; n = 382) were analyzed. The results confirmed an association between IP-10 and the immediate reduction of HCV RNA in response to therapy (P = 0.006). In contrast, pretreatment levels of IP-10 in liver or in plasma did not affect the decline of HCV RNA between days 8 and 29, i.e., the second-phase decline, or later time points in any of these cohorts. Conclusion: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, low levels of intrahepatic and systemic IP-10 predict a favorable first-phase decline of HCV RNA during therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotypes of HCV. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

PubMed | S Antonio Abate Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma, University of Milan, University of Bologna and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: HIV clinical trials | Year: 2017

To evaluate the impact of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in pregnant women with HIV.Retrospective analysis of a large case series of pregnant women with HIV in Italy; outcome measures were CD4 changes, HIV viral load, and main pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery, low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, mode of delivery, and major birth defects).Rate of HBV coinfection among 1462 pregnancies was 12.0%. Compared to the HBV-uninfected, HBV-coinfected women had a significantly lower median CD4 cell gain between first and third trimester (26.5 vs. 60 cells/mmHBV coinfection had no adverse influence on the main pregnancy outcomes or on HIV viral load suppression in late pregnancy but was associated with a significantly reduced CD4 response in pregnancy. This effect might have clinical relevance, particularly in women with advanced immune deterioration.

Bochud P.-Y.,University Hospital | Bibert S.,University Hospital | Negro F.,University of Geneva | Haagmans B.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with IL28B influence the outcome of peginterferon-α/ribavirin therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We analyzed the kinetics of HCV RNA during therapy as a function of IL28B SNPs. Methods: IL28B SNPs rs8099917, rs12979860, and rs12980275 were genotyped in 242 HCV treatment-naïve Caucasian patients (67% genotype 1, 28% genotype 2 or 3) receiving peginterferon-α2a (180 μg weekly) and ribavirin (1000-1200 mg daily) with serial HCV-RNA quantifications. Associations between IL28B polymorphisms and early viral kinetics were assessed, accounting for relevant covariates. Results: In the multivariate analyses for genotype 1 patients, the T allele of rs12979860 (T rs12979860) was an independent risk factor for a less pronounced first phase HCV RNA decline (log 10 0.89 IU/ml among T carriers vs. 2.06 among others, adjusted p <0.001) and lower rapid (15% vs. 38%, adjusted p = 0.007) and sustained viral response rates (48% vs. 66%, adjusted p <0.001). In univariate analyses, T rs12979860 was also associated with a reduced second phase decline (p = 0.002), but this association was no longer significant after adjustment for the first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.8). In genotype 2/3 patients, T rs12979860 was associated with a reduced first phase decline (adjusted p = 0.04), but not with a second phase decline. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in IL28B are strongly associated with the first phase viral decline during peginterferon-α/ ribavirin therapy of chronic HCV infection, irrespective of HCV genotype. © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Baroncelli S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Galluzzo C.M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Weimer L.E.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Pirillo M.F.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To evaluate the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in proviral DNA of patients during maraviroc-based therapy. Methods: Fourteen heavily high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with a CCR5 Trofile profile were monitored over a 24 month period from the start of maraviroc therapy. Whole-blood samples were obtained at different timepoints, and coreceptor tropism was determined for proviral DNA from the V3-loop region sequence using the Geno2Pheno algorithm [false positive rate (FPR): 20%]. Results: At the start of maraviroc treatment, 13/14 patients were viraemic (median: 4.33 log copies/mL). Concordance in R5 tropism (R5/R5) was observed between circulating HIV-RNA (Trofile) and HIV-DNA provirus in 10/14 patients (median FPR=54.0%), while 4 patients showed a CXCR4-tropic R5/X4 variant in their provirus (FPR: 5.8%, 5.7%, 16.6% and 1.1%, respectively). All R5/R5 patients showed a stable HIV-1 DNA coreceptor usage. Two out of four R5/X4 patients showed a tropism shift in their archived provirus and, after 6 months a prevalence of R5-tropic virus was detected in DNA. The other two R5/X4 patients harboured the 11/25 genotype, and maintained X4 tropism in provirus during the study. Virological response did not reveal differences in RNA decay and CD4+ cell recovery in patients with discordant tropism. Conclusions: A relatively good correlation between RNA and DNA tropism was observed at baseline. Proviral DNA tropism remained stable over 24 months of maraviroc-based therapy, indicating that determination of proviral DNA V3 sequence could be used in tropism prediction in clinical practice. The data also confirm the importance of the 11/25 rule in predicting viral tropism. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Pinnetti C.,Catholic University | Baroncelli S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Molinari A.,Azienda Ospedaliera di Parma | Nardini G.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2011

Objective: Although zidovudine-free regimens are increasingly used in pregnancy, their haematological effects in mothers and newborns are incompletely defined. Methods: The haematological profiles of 119 HIV-infected women and their neonates with highly active antiretroviral regimens (HAART) in pregnancy including or not zidovudine (ZDV) were investigated. Three groups were compared: 1) women who started ZDV-lamivudine (3TC)-based HAART during pregnancy (ZDVs, n = 60); 2) women on ZDV-3TC-based HAART from conception (ZDVc, n = 18); 3) women on ZDV-free HAART from conception (ZDVf, n = 41). Results: At the beginning of pregnancy, haemoglobin levels were similar in the three groups. By week 36 compared to baseline, haemoglobin levels had a significantly greater decrease in ZDVf women compared to ZDVs women (ZDVf: -2.03 g/dl; ZDVs: -1.36 g/dl, p = 0.036). A similar trend was observed for occurrence of maternal anaemia at 36 weeks. Newborns with no prenatal ZDV exposure had significantly higher haemoglobin levels at birth (ZDVf: 16.1 ± 1.4 g/dl, ZDVs: 14.3 ± 2.0 g/dl; ZDVc: 14.6 ± 2.4 g/dl, p = 0.044 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusions: Half of ZDV-unexposed mothers had anaemia at the end of pregnancy, but their neonates had normal haemoglobin levels. ZDV initiation was associated with a lower occurrence of maternal anaemia during the third trimester and decreased haemoglobin levels in the newborns. We hypothesize that foetal iron requirements could represent a major determinant of maternal anaemia at the end of pregnancy. © 2011 The British Infection Association.

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