Azeezia Medical College

Kollam, India

Azeezia Medical College

Kollam, India
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Latha M.S.,Dr. Reddys Laboratories Ltd. | Martis J.,Fr Muller Medical College | Shobha V.,Fr Muller Medical College | Shinde R.S.,Dr. Reddys Laboratories Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology | Year: 2013

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.


Raj P.K.S.,Government Medical College | Raj P.K.S.,Azeezia Medical College | Nuuman J.A.,Government Taluk Headquarters Hospital | Pattathil A.S.,Azeezia Medical College
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics | Year: 2015

Background: Femoral neck fractures are treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty. Usually, cannulated cancellous screws are used for osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur. The bone impregnated hip screw (BIHS) is an alternative implant, where osteosyntehsis is required in femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: The BIHS is a hollow screw with thread diameter 8.3 mm, shank diameter 6.5 mm and wall thickness 2.2 mm and holes in the shaft of the screw with diameter 2 mm, placed in a staggered fashion. Biomechanical and animal experimental studies were done. Clinical study was done in two phases: Phase 1 in a group of volunteers, only with BIHS was used in a pilot study and phase 2 comparative study was done in a group with AO cannulated screws and the other group treated with BIHS. Results: In the phase 1 study, out of 15 patients, only one patient had delayed union. In phase 2, there were 78 patients, 44 patients in BIHS showed early union, compared to the rest 34 cases of AO cannulated screws Out of 44 patients with BIHS, 41 patients had an excellent outcome, 2 had nonunions and one implant breakage was noted. Conclusions: Bone impregnated hip screw has shown to provide early solid union since it incorporates the biomechanical principles and also increases the osteogenic potential and hence, found superior to conventional cannulated cancellous screw.


Abideen S.,Azeezia Medical College | Vivekanandan K.,Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission | Mishra P.,SEARPharm Forum
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

Background: Critically ill-patients frequently receive multidrug regimens (polypharmacy) with the goal of providing the superlative pharmacotherapeutic support. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a specific type of adverse event, which develops due to multiple regimen therapy, and that may lead to significant hospitalization and death. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted for a period of 3 months to assess the prevalence potential DDIs in medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) patients of a north Indian tertiary care hospital using Lexi Comp drug interact android mobile application. Results: A total of 72 patients were identified for this study. 65.27% (47) were males, and 34.72% (25) were females. The average age of the study population was 52 years, and average length of stay in hospital was found to be 7 days. An average of 17.09 drugs per patient was administered to the patients during the study period. 90.02% (65) of patients experienced at least one potential DDI. A total of 222 interactions observed during the study period with an occurrence rate of 3.08 DDI per patient. There were 106 types drug pairs was found to get interacted at least 1 time. Corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, central nervous system depressants, sympathomimetics and quinolone antibiotics are the main class of drugs mostly interacted in MICU. Conclusion: The study shows that, concomitant administration rate of potentially interacting drugs are very high in MICU. We suggest that, special safety measures must be followed by physicians, pharmacists, and nurses to prevent and monitor DDIs in all departments of the hospital especially in intensive care departments. Health providers must be able to identify and classify drug interactions (DIs), and know how to manage them clinically, that is, how to minimize or more over prevent them. Practice of a computer assisted DI checker before prescribing/administering of the drugs can avoid DDIs. In settings with multiple drug use like in ICUs, attendance of a pharmacist or clinical pharmacist, taking the responsibility for monitoring DIs and notifying the physician about potential problems could decrease the harm inpatient and ensure the patient safety. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


Prakash K.G.,Azeezia Medical College | Saniya K.,Azeezia Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: This anatomical study of the pectoral nerves and their innervation is to provide detail informations on the pectoral nerves and their variations in their course, to guide the cosmetic and plastic surgeons for their easy intra operative localization and to improve the understanding of the pectoral muscle innervation, which is very much required during breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in breast cancer; axillary dissection; removal of the pectoralis minor muscle, and in harvesting the pectoralis major for myocutaneous head and neck island flap surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pectoral region specimens (both right and left sided) from 25 embalmed adult human cadavers (20 female & 05 male) were studied by dissection method. Statistical Analysis: The data were tabulated in Microsoft excel and analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 17th version). Mean, Proportion, Standard deviation and Unpaired t-test were applied for analysing the data obtained. Result and Conclusion: In all the specimens, the medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor muscle; but as a single trunk in 76%, and as dividing branches in 34% specimens. The extent of costal attachment of the pectoralis minor muscle found to be less than 6.0 cm in cases of the medial pectoral nerve piercing the pectoralis minor muscle as a single trunk. The medial pectoral nerve after piercing the pectoralis minor, ramify within the muscle supplying it, finally runs along the lateral aspect (lower border) of the pectoralis minor muscle to supply the lower portion or distal segment of the pectoralis major muscle. Similarly, the lateral pectoral nerve runs along the upper border (medial aspect) of the pectoralis minor muscle (98%) and then runs under surface of the pectoralis major muscle along with the pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery, supplying the upper portion or most of the proximal 2/3rd of the pectoralis major muscle. Therefore, when the pectoralis minor muscle is removed in a modified radical mastectomy or during dissection between the two muscles, there is partial denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with partial atrophy and decrease in muscle mass. If the lateral pectoral nerve also injured along with the medial pectoral nerve, it can result in total denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with severe atrophy and fibrosis. In breast augmentation implants placing behind the pectoralis major muscle, it is found to be more advantageous if the pectoralis major muscle is partially denervated for the better projection and contour. The distance of the branches of the medial pectoral nerve and the lateral pectoral nerve in the pectoral muscles from the lateral margin of the sternum being 8.8-10.8cm and 5.8-10.2cm respectively. The proximal segment or upper portion of the pectoralis major muscle has got separate independent vascular and nerve supply; therefore, it can be safely used as a myocutaneous flap in surgeries of head and neck or anterior chest wall.


Prakash K.G.,Azeezia Medical College | Saniya K.,Azeezia Medical College
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Introduction: The simple anatomy, the ease of harvest and the proximity of flap to the head and neck, the reliability, size and low donor site morbidity have made pectoralis major flaps very ease for the head and neck reconstructive flap surgeries.The objective for this cadaveric dissection study is to find out the origin, intramuscular course and supply of each vessel to pectoralis major muscle and the possible variations for guiding the surgeons for the safe use of it as a myocutaneous flap in reconstruction surgeries without any complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pectoral region specimens (both right and left sided) from 25 embalmed adult human cadavers (22 males & 03 females) were studied by dissection method after the approval of Local Ethical Committee. Result and Conclusion: The proximal part (clavicular part) of pectoralis major is always supplied by the clavicular branch of thoracoacromial artery (100%) and supplemented sometimes by deltoid branch (98%) or by acromial branch (94%) or by pectoral branch (40%). The distal part (sternocostal portion) is always supplied by the pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery in all 50 specimens (100%) with supplementary branches from perforating branches of internal thoracic artery and lateral perforating branches of anterior intercostal artery (100%). © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.


Linu M.,Kerala University | Shankar S.,Azeezia Medical College
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

As part of a permanent screening programme, which considers the search for plants and natural products with anticancer properties, the plants are subjected to bioscreening assay testing for cytotoxity. Another crucial component of pre-clinical oncology drug development is the study and monitoring of cell death in tumour and normal tissues. Therefore, methanolic extract stem bark of cassia fistula L was tested for in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptogenic potential by MTT assay, DAPI assay, mitosensor assay and caspase assay.


Prakash K.G.,Azeezia Medical College | Saniya K.,Azeezia Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Introduction: Axillary nerve is one of the terminal branches of posterior cord of brachial plexus, which is most commonly injured during numerous orthopaedic surgeries, during shoulder dislocation & rotator cuff tear. All these possible iatrogenic injuries are because of lack of awareness of anatomical variations of the nerve. Therefore, it is very much necessary to explore its possible variations and guide the surgeons to enhance the better clinical outcome by reducing the risk and complications. Materials and Methods: Twenty five cadavers (20 Males & 05 Females) making 50 specimens including both right and left sides were dissected as per standard dissection methods to find the origin, course, branches, distribution & exact location of the nerve beneath the deltoid muscle from important landmarks like: posterolateral aspect of acromion process, anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, midpoint of deltoid muscle insertion (deltoid tuberosity of humerus) and from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle. The measurements were recorded and tabulated. Statistical Analysis: The measurements were entered in Microsoft excel and mean, proportion, standard deviation were calculated by using SPSS 16th version. Results: The axillary nerve was found to take origin from the posterior cord of brachial plexus (100%) dividing into anterior & posterior branches in Quadrangular space (88%) and supply deltoid muscle mainly. It also gave branches to teres minor muscle, shoulder joint capsule & superolateral brachial cutaneous nerve (100%). This study concluded that the mean distance of axillary nerve from the – anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, posterolateral aspect of acromion process, midpoint of deltoid insertion & from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle measured to be (in cm) as 3.56±0.51, 7.4±0.99, 6.7±0.47 & 2.45±0.48 respectively. The mean vertical distance of entering point of axillary nerve from the anterior upper, mid middle upper & posterior upper deltoid border found to be (in cm): 4.94±0.86, 5.14±0.90 & 5.44±0.95 respectively and the horizontal anterior & horizontal posterior mean distance being 4.54±0.65 & 3.22±0.53 respectively. The mean height, mean width & mean depth of Quadrangular space measured to be (in cm): 2.23±0.40, 2.19±0.22 & 1.25±0.14 respectively. Conclusion: The findings were found to be highly significant when males were compared with females but not significant when sides (right & left) were compared. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research.All rights reserved.


PubMed | Azeezia Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2014

This anatomical study of the pectoral nerves and their innervation is to provide detail informations on the pectoral nerves and their variations in their course, to guide the cosmetic and plastic surgeons for their easy intra operative localization and to improve the understanding of the pectoral muscle innervation, which is very much required during breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in breast cancer; axillary dissection; removal of the pectoralis minor muscle, and in harvesting the pectoralis major for myocutaneous head and neck island flap surgeries.A total of 50 pectoral region specimens (both right and left sided) from 25 embalmed adult human cadavers (20 female & 05 male) were studied by dissection method.The data were tabulated in Microsoft excel and analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 17(th) version). Mean, Proportion, Standard deviation and Unpaired t-test were applied for analysing the data obtained.In all the specimens, the medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor muscle; but as a single trunk in 76%, and as dividing branches in 34% specimens. The extent of costal attachment of the pectoralis minor muscle found to be less than 6.0 cm in cases of the medial pectoral nerve piercing the pectoralis minor muscle as a single trunk. The medial pectoral nerve after piercing the pectoralis minor, ramify within the muscle supplying it, finally runs along the lateral aspect (lower border) of the pectoralis minor muscle to supply the lower portion or distal segment of the pectoralis major muscle. Similarly, the lateral pectoral nerve runs along the upper border (medial aspect) of the pectoralis minor muscle (98%) and then runs under surface of the pectoralis major muscle along with the pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery, supplying the upper portion or most of the proximal 2/3(rd) of the pectoralis major muscle. Therefore, when the pectoralis minor muscle is removed in a modified radical mastectomy or during dissection between the two muscles, there is partial denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with partial atrophy and decrease in muscle mass. If the lateral pectoral nerve also injured along with the medial pectoral nerve, it can result in total denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with severe atrophy and fibrosis. In breast augmentation implants placing behind the pectoralis major muscle, it is found to be more advantageous if the pectoralis major muscle is partially denervated for the better projection and contour. The distance of the branches of the medial pectoral nerve and the lateral pectoral nerve in the pectoral muscles from the lateral margin of the sternum being 8.8-10.8 cm and 5.8-10.2 cm respectively. The proximal segment or upper portion of the pectoralis major muscle has got separate independent vascular and nerve supply; therefore, it can be safely used as a myocutaneous flap in surgeries of head and neck or anterior chest wall.


PubMed | Azeezia Medical College, Government Medical College and Government Taluk Headquarters Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of orthopaedics | Year: 2015

Femoral neck fractures are treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty. Usually, cannulated cancellous screws are used for osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur. The bone impregnated hip screw (BIHS) is an alternative implant, where osteosyntehsis is required in femoral neck fracture.The BIHS is a hollow screw with thread diameter 8.3 mm, shank diameter 6.5 mm and wall thickness 2.2 mm and holes in the shaft of the screw with diameter 2 mm, placed in a staggered fashion. Biomechanical and animal experimental studies were done. Clinical study was done in two phases: Phase 1 in a group of volunteers, only with BIHS was used in a pilot study and phase 2 comparative study was done in a group with AO cannulated screws and the other group treated with BIHS.In the phase 1 study, out of 15 patients, only one patient had delayed union. In phase 2, there were 78 patients, 44 patients in BIHS showed early union, compared to the rest 34 cases of AO cannulated screws Out of 44 patients with BIHS, 41 patients had an excellent outcome, 2 had nonunions and one implant breakage was noted.Bone impregnated hip screw has shown to provide early solid union since it incorporates the biomechanical principles and also increases the osteogenic potential and hence, found superior to conventional cannulated cancellous screw.


Jyothi M.,Providence College | Shashidhar S.,Azeezia Medical College
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Context: Glutathione depletion has been postulated to be the prime reason for galactose cataract. The current research seeks the prospect of targeting erythrocytes to pursue the lens metabolism by studying the glutathione system. Aims: To study the activity of the glutathione-linked scavenger enzyme system in the erythrocyte and lens of rats with cataract. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in 36 male albino rats weighing 80 20 g of 28 days of age. The rats were divided into two major groups, viz. experimental and control. Six rats in each group were sacrificed every 10 days, for 30 days. Cataract was induced in the experimental group by feeding the rats 30% galactose (w/w). The involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the linked enzymes was studied in the erythrocytes and lens of cataractous as well as control rats. Statistical Analysis: Parametric tests like one-way ANOVA and Student's 't' test were used for comparison. Correlation linear plot was used to compare the erythrocyte and lens metabolism. Results: Theconcentration of GSH and the activity of linked enzymes were found decreased with the progression of cataract, and also in comparison to the control. The same linear fashion was also observed in the erythrocytes. Conclusion: Depletion of GSH was the prime factor for initiating galactose cataract in the rat model. This depletion may in turn result in enzyme inactivation leading to cross-linking of protein and glycation. The correlation analysis specifies that the biochemical mechanism in the erythrocytes and lens is similar in the rat model.

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