Shimazaki K.-I.,Fuji University |
Kawai K.,Azabu University
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2017
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis. © 2017 Published by NRC Research Press.
Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) pharmacoproteomics: Reconstruction of in vivo brain distribution of 11 P-glycoprotein substrates based on the BBB transporter protein concentration, in vitro intrinsic transport activity, and unbound fraction in plasma and brain in mice
Uchida Y.,Tohoku University |
Ohtsuki S.,Tohoku University |
Kamiie J.,Azabu University |
Terasaki T.,Tohoku University
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2011
The purpose of this study was to examine whether in vivo drug distribution to the brain can be reconstructed by integrating P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/mdr1a expression levels, P-gp in vitro activity, and drug unbound fractions in mouse plasma and brain. For 11 P-gp substrates, in vitro P-gp transport activities were determined by measuring transcellular transport across monolayers of mouse P-gptransfected LLC-PK1 (L-mdr1a) and parental cells. P-gp expression amounts were determined by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Unbound drug fractions in plasma and brain were obtained from the literature and by measuring brain slice uptake, respectively. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (K p brain) and its ratios between wild-type and mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (K p brain ratio) were obtained from the literature or determined by intravenous constant infusion. Unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (K p,uu,brain) were estimated from K p brain and unbound fractions. Based on pharmacokinetic theory, K p brain ratios were reconstructed from in vitro P-gp transport activities and P-gp expression amounts in L-mdr1a cells and mouse brain capillaries. All reconstructed K p brain ratios were within a 1.6-fold range of observed values. K p brain then was reconstructed from the reconstructed K p brain ratios and unbound fractions. K p,uu,brain was reconstructed as the reciprocal of the reconstructed K p brain ratios. For quinidine, loperamide, risperidone, indinavir, dexamethasone, paclitaxel, verapamil, loratadine, and diazepam, the reconstructed K p brain and K p,uu,brain agreed with observed and estimated in vivo values within a 3-fold range, respectively. Thus, brain distributions of P-gp substrates can be reconstructed from P-gp expression levels, in vitro activity, and drug unbound fractions. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Nagasawa M.,Azabu University |
Nagasawa M.,Jichi Medical University |
Mitsui S.,Azabu University |
En S.,Azabu University |
And 6 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014
Human-like modes of communication, including mutual gaze, in dogs may have been acquired during domestication with humans. We show that gazing behavior from dogs, but not wolves, increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners, which consequently facilitated owners' affiliation and increased oxytocin concentration in dogs. Further, nasally administered oxytocin increased gazing behavior in dogs, which in turn increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners. These findings support the existence of an interspecies oxytocin-mediated positive loop facilitated and modulated by gazing, which may have supported the coevolution of human-dog bonding by engaging common modes of communicating social attachment. © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.
Kanemaki N.,Azabu University
PloS one | Year: 2013
Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy that is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma in canines, and its highest incidence among dog breeds has been reported in Shiba-Inus, followed by Shih-Tzus. These breeds are known to have an abnormal iridocorneal angle and dysplastic prectinate ligament. However, the hereditary and genetic backgrounds of these dogs have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of the glaucoma candidate genes, SRBD1, ELOVL5, and ADAMTS10, and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. We analyzed 11 polymorphisms in these three genes using direct DNA sequencing. Three SRBD1 SNPs, rs8655283, rs22018514 and rs22018513 were significantly associated with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus, while rs22018513, a synonymous SNP in exon 4, showed the strongest association (P = 0.00039, OR = 3.03). Conditional analysis revealed that rs22018513 could account for most of the association of these SNPs with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus. In Shih-Tzus, only rs9172407 in the SRBD1 intron 1 was significantly associated with glaucoma (P = 0.0014, OR = 5.25). There were no significant associations between the ELOVL5 or ADAMTS10 polymorphisms and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. The results showed that SRBD1 polymorphisms play an important role in glaucoma pathology in both Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. SRBD1 polymorphisms have also been associated with normal- and high-tension glaucomas in humans. Therefore, SRBD1 may be a common susceptibility gene for glaucoma in humans and dogs. We anticipate that the nucleotide sequencing data from this study can be used in genetic testing to determine for the first time, the genetic status and susceptibility of glaucoma in dogs, with high precision. Moreover, canine glaucoma resulting from SRBD1 polymorphisms could be a useful animal model to study human glaucoma.
Sogawa K.,Azabu University
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016
Background:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a devastating disease due to the lack of specific early diagnostic markers. To improve the outcomes, proteomic approaches are being developed for the discovery of novel biomarkers of PDAC.Methods:Using tandem mass tag labelling and LC-MS/MS, we performed comparative analyses of pre- and postoperative sera from PDAC patients to identify specific serum biomarkers for PDAC. In validation studies, we evaluated the discriminatory power of candidate proteins.Results:Among the 302 proteins analysed, 20 were identified as potential biomarkers, with C4b-binding protein α-chain (C4BPA) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR) being selected for further analysis. The sera levels of C4BPA and PIGR were significantly higher in the preoperative PDAC patients than in the postoperative ones (P<0.008, P<0.036, respectively). In addition, serum C4BPA levels, but not PIGR, in patients with PDAC were significantly higher than those in healthy controls as well as in patients with pancreatitis and other malignancies including biliary tract cancers (BTC) (P<0.001). The respective area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.860 for C4BPA, 0.846 for CA19-9 and 0.930 for the combination of C4BPA and CA19-9 in PDAC vs non-cancer individuals. The respective AUC was 0.912 for C4BPA, 0.737 for CA19-9 in Stages I and II of PDAC, 0.854 for C4BPA and 0.264 for CA19-9 in PDAC vs BTC.Conclusions:We have demonstrated that C4BPA is a novel serum biomarker for detecting early stage PDAC, as well as for distinguishing PDAC from other gastroenterological cancers. Further analysis in large cohort studies will warrant C4BPA as a promising biomarker of PDAC in clinical use.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 22 September 2016; doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.295 www.bjcancer.com. © 2016 Cancer Research UK
Nagasawa M.,Azabu University
The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science | Year: 2011
In order to introduce the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), which is a standardized system for evaluating the behavioral traits of dogs, to Japan, where the environment with respect to dog ownership is thought to differ from those of the United States and Europe, we compared demographic information on dogs in the United States and Japan and examined whether similar factors could be extracted from both countries using questionnaire items of the C-BARQ. The C-BARQ was completed by 11,410, and 734 dog owners respectively in the United States and Japan, and some demographic differences were found, such as breed and neuter status. Data from completed questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and the resulting factors were tested for reliability. In the United States, factor analysis yielded 11 factors from 63 items that accounted for 52.9% of the common variance. In Japan, 15 factors were extracted, and these accounted for 57.0% of the common variance. The present factors for the United States were almost identical to the factors identified in a previous study, and similar factors were extracted in both countries. Therefore, the C-BARQ can function effectively as a fundamental behavioral evaluation system for dogs in Japan.
Nakanishi S.,Azabu University
British journal of biomedical science | Year: 2013
A recombinant molecule of the full-length urease gene operon was constructed in vitro from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) CF89-12 isolate and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Several large deletion recombinant variants of urease subunit genes were also constructed and expressed in E. coli cells. A positive urease reaction with the log-phase cultured E. coli JM109 cells in the NiCl2-containing medium transformed with pGEM-T vector carrying the recombinant molecule of the full-length operon was detected with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside. Among the several deletion recombinant variants, each ureA-, ureB-, ureE-, ureF-, ureG- and ureH-large deficient, only ureE-large deletion variant (63% deficient) showed a positive urease reaction (approximately 15-fold). In addition, a ureE-complete deletion recombinant variant (100% deficient) constructed also showed a positive reaction of urease (approximately 18-fold). Recombinant urease subunits A and B were immunologically identified by Western blot analysis with anti-urease alpha (A) and beta (B) raised against Helicobacter pylori.
Uetake K.,Azabu University
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2013
Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sakata R.,Azabu University
Meat Science | Year: 2010
This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe. Soft meat products specially produced for the elderly, along with diet meat products low in salt and calorie content for middle aged persons have recently gone into production. The intensification of color formation of meat using naturally occurring materials, and tenderization of sausage casing are discussed. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.
Kikusui T.,Azabu University
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013
Pheromone and odor signals play a pivotal role in male mouse reproductive behaviors, such as sexual and aggressive behavior. There are several methods used to assess male behaviors, each of which examines a unique aspect of the biological function of mice. There are two major ways of assessing male aggressive behavior in mice, one is using isolation-induced aggression, and the other is territorial aggression in pair-housed males. To analyze male sexual behavior, a female mouse that is hormone-primed with estradiol and progesterone is usually introduced into a male home range, and mounting, intromission, and ejaculation behaviors are observed for 1 h. Here, we summarize the detailed protocols for assessing male behaviors. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.