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Lichtenstein D.A.,Boulogne Paris West University | Van Hooland S.,AZ St Lucas Hospital | Elbers P.,Institute for Cardiovascular Research ICaR VU | Malbrain M.L.N.G.,ICU and High Care Burn Unit
Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy | Year: 2014

Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in combination with lung ultrasound, with the appearance of B-lines considered to be the endpoint for fluid therapy. An advantage of lung ultrasound is that the patient is not exposed to radiation, and so the LUCI-FLR project (LUCI favouring limitation of radiation) can be unfolded in trauma patients. Although it has been practiced for 25 years, critical care ultrasound is a relatively young but expanding discipline and can be seen as the stethoscope of the modern intensivist. In this review, the usefulness and advantages of ultrasound in the critical care setting are discussed in ten points. The emphasis is on a holistic approach, with a central role for lung ultrasound.

Klazen C.A.H.,St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis | Klazen C.A.H.,Spectrum | Venmans A.,St. Elisabeth Ziekenhuis | De Vries J.,St Elisabeth Hospital | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PV is increasingly used as treatment for osteoporotic VCFs. However, controversy exists as to whether PV increases the risk for new VCFs during follow-up. The purpose of our research was to assess the incidence of new VCFs in patients with acute VCFs randomized to PV and conservative therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VERTOS II is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing PV with conservative therapy in 202 patients. Incidence, distribution, and timing of new VCFs during follow-up were assessed from spine radiographs. In addition, further height loss during followup of treated VCFs was measured. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 11.4 months (median, 12.0; range, 1-24 months), 18 new VCFs occurred in 15 of 91 patients after PV and 30 new VCFs in 21 of 85 patients after conservative therapy. This difference was not significant (P = .44). There was no higher fracture risk for adjacent-versus-distant vertebrae. Mean time to new VCF was 16.2 months after PV and 17.8 months after conservative treatment (logrank, P = .45). The baseline number of VCFs was the only risk factor for occurrence (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95) and number (P = .01) of new VCFs. After conservative therapy, further height loss of treated vertebrae occurred more frequently (35 of 85 versus 11 of 91 patients, P < .001) and was more severe (P < .001) than after PV. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of new VCFs was not different after PV compared with conservative therapy after a mean of 11.4 months' follow-up. The only risk factor for new VCFs was the number of VCFs at baseline. PV contributed to preservation of stature by decreasing both the incidence and severity of further height loss in treated vertebrae.

Tansey R.J.,Institute of Sport | Benjamin-Laing H.,Institute of Sport | Jassim S.,Institute of Sport | Liekens K.,AZ St Lucas Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Bone and Joint Journal | Year: 2015

Hip and groin injuries are common in athletes who take part in high level sports. Adductor muscle tendon injuries represent a small but important number of these injuries. Avulsion of the tendons attached to the symphysis pubis has previously been described: these can be managed both operatively and non-operatively. We describe an uncommon variant of this injury, namely complete avulsion of the adductor sleeve complex: this includes adductor longus, pectineus and rectus abdominis. We go on to describe a surgical technique which promotes a full return to the pre-injury level of sporting activity. Over a period of ten years, 15 high-level athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute adductor complex avulsion injury (six to 34 days old) underwent surgical repair. The operative procedure consisted of anatomical re-attachment of the avulsed tissues in each case and mesh reinforcement of the posterior inguinal wall in seven patients. All underwent a standardised rehabilitation programme, which was then individualised to be sport-specific. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, which was successfully treated with antibiotics. Of the 15 patients, four complained of transient local numbness which resolved in all cases. All patients (including seven elite athletes) returned to their previous level of participation in sport. © 2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Vanhercke D.,AZ St Lucas Hospital | Vanhercke D.,Ghent University | Claessens T.,University College Ghent | Pardaens S.,AZ Maria Middelares Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Acta Cardiologica | Year: 2012

Early colour M-mode flow propagation velocity (Vpe) in the left ventricle is a well-known non-invasive index for assessing left ventricular relaxation. However, the utility and determinants of late colour M-mode flow propagation (Vpa) have received little attention to date. Vpa as a representation of the left ventricular vortex travelling velocity during late filling could have a distinct role in differentiating potential subgroups in diastolic failure. The aim of the present study was to establish the normal values of late flow propagation in a healthy population of various ages (18-79 years), and to examine the general and echocardiographic variables that affect Vpa. Methods We studied 75 apparently healthy subjects (age range, 18-79 years; 38 women, 37 men) as part of an outpatient clinic check-up screening. General parameters were recorded, including age, gender, height, weight, blood pressure, and heart rate. In addition, conventional grey-scale M-mode, 2D, as well as colour M-mode, 2D, and pulsed wave (tissue) Doppler echocardiographic parameters were obtained in a single centre and using a single operator setting. Backward linear regression analysis (dependent variable: Vpa) was performed to find the optimal model, taking into account multicollinearity and maximum coefficient of determination (R 2). Due to the heteroscedasticity of the collected data, a logarithmic transformation was used. In addition, separate linear backward regression analysis was performed for the male and female subgroups. Results Vpa values were 26-179 cm/s. The optimal regression model after elimination included the following variables: age (β = 0.684, P < 0.001), height (β = 0.521, P < 0.001), gender (β = 0.343, P < 0.05), left ventricular Vpe (β = 0.299, P < 0.01), left ventricular posterior systolic (M-mode) wall thickness (β = 0.288, P < 0.01), interventricular septum thickness diastole (β = 0.346, P < 0.005), transmitral Doppler E-wave deceleration time apical 4-chamber (β = - 0.297, P < 0.05), and tissue Doppler peak E-wave mitral annulus (β = 0.459, P < 0.005). The total coefficient of determination (R 2) for this model was 0.540 (P < 0.001); 0.673 (P < 0.001) for men and 0.645 (P < 0.001) for women. Conclusion Vpa, representing left ventricular vortex travelling velocity during late filling, shows a large range of values in normal healthy subjects. It is mainly depending on age, gender and left ventricular mass. Moreover, substantially different determinants are found between men and women. Further study is required to explore these findings.

Pezato R.,Ghent University | Pezato R.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Perez-Novo C.A.,Ghent University | Holtappels G.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2014

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized as a Th2-driven disease. Activated dendritic cells (DCs) are the main T-cell activators; their role in the chronic inflammatory process of nasal polyposis is still unclear. Methods: The regulation of DC subsets was analyzed in nasal polyp tissue from CRSwNP patients and compared to inferior turbinate tissue from healthy subjects. Tissue localization and expression of both plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs were assayed by means of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Plasmacytoid DCs were also assayed by PCR, and tissue homogenates were assayed for various inflammatory markers. Results: The number of plasmacytoid (pDCs) and myeloid (mDCs) dendritic cells was significantly increased in nasal polyp tissue when compared to non-inflamed nasal mucosa. The number of pDCs, but not mDCs, was down-regulated in more severe cases (nasal polyps with asthma) and varied with the cytokine milieu. The amount of pDCs was significantly decreased in IL5+IFNγ - nasal polyp tissue compared to tissues with high IFNγ levels (IL5+IFNγ+). Furthermore, levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase were increased in nasal polyp compared to inferior turbinate tissue and correlated negatively with the number of pDCs. Conclusions: There is an altered balance of pDC and mDC numbers in nasal polyp tissue. pDCs seem to be more susceptible to an inflammatory cytokine milieu and may play a crucial role in disease severity. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

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