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Sathekge M.M.,University of Pretoria | Maes A.,AZ Groeninge | Pottel H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Stoltz A.,University of Pretoria | van de Wiele C.,Ghent University
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Objective: Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is an accurate non-invasive imaging test for differentiating benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). We aimed to assess its diagnostic accuracy for differentiating benign from malignant SPNs in a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic area. Methods: Thirty patients, 22 men and 8 women, mean age 60 years, underwent dual time point FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, followed by histological examination of the SPN. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) with the greatest uptake in the lesion were calculated for two time points (SUV1 and SUV2), and the percentage change over time per lesion was calculated (%DSUV). Routine histological findings served as the gold standard. Results: Histological examination showed that 14 lesions were malignant and 16 benign, 12 of which were TB. SUVmax for benign and malignant lesions were 11.02 (standard deviation (SD) 6.6) v. 10.86 (SD 8.9); however, when tuberculomas were excluded from the analysis, a significant difference in mean SUV1max values between benign and malignant lesions was observed (p=0.0059). Using an SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5, a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 25% was obtained. Omitting the TB patients from analysis resulted in a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. Mean %DSUV of benign lesions did not differ significantly from mean %DSUV of malignant lesions (17.1% (SD 16.3%) v. 19.4% (SD 23.7%)). Using a cut-off of %DSUV >10% as indicative of malignancy, a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 50% was obtained. Omitting the TB patients from the analysis yielded a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 75%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that FDG-PET cannot distinguish malignancy from tuberculoma and therefore cannot reliably be used to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy.

Van der Bracht H.,GZA Sint Augustinus | Verhelst L.,AZ Groeninge | Stuyts B.,GZA Sint Augustinus | Page B.,Stellenbosch University | And 2 more authors.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2014

Purpose: To investigate the consequences of differences in drill-guide angle and tibial tunnel diameter on the amount of tibial anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint coverage and the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. Methods: Twenty fresh-frozen adult human knee specimens with a median age of 46 years were used for this study. Digital templates mimicking the ellipsoid aperture of tibial tunnels with a different drill-guide angle and a different diameter were designed. The centres of these templates were positioned over the geometric centre of the tibial ACL footprint. The amount of tibial ACL footprint coverage and overhang was calculated. Risk factors for overhang were determined. Footprint coverage and the risk of overhang were also compared between a lateral tibial tunnel and a classic antero-medial tibial tunnel. Results: A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will create significant more footprint coverage and overhang. In 45 % of the knees, an overhang was created with a 10-mm diameter tibial tunnel with drill-guide angle 45°. Furthermore, a lateral tibial tunnel was found not to be at increased risk of overhang. Conclusion: A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will increase the amount of footprint coverage. Inversely, larger tibial tunnel diameters and smaller drill-guide angles will increase the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. A lateral tibial tunnel does not increase the risk of overhang. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Swinnen G.,AZ Groeninge | Maes A.,AZ Groeninge | Pottel H.,Catholic University of Leuven | Vanneste A.,AZ Groeninge | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2010

Background: Locoregional lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in patients with bladder cancer. Multimodal treatment, depending on preoperative stage, may improve survival. The standard imaging modalities for staging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) have an accuracy range of 70-90% for lymph node staging. A more accurate preoperative diagnostic test could improve survival rates even more. Objective: To determine whether the use of 2-deoxy-2 [F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with CT (FDG-PET/CT) can increase the reliability of preoperative lymph node staging in patients with nonmetastatic invasive bladder cancer (T2 or higher, M0) or recurrent high-risk superficial disease (T1G3 with or without Tis, M0). Design, setting, and participants: Fifty-one patients underwent a preoperative FDG-PET/CT between April 2004 and December 2007. Independent of the result for lymph node status, all patients underwent a radical cystectomy and an extended lymphadenectomy. The FDG-PET/CT and CT results were compared with the definitive pathologic results. Measurements: Among the 51 patients, 13 patients had metastatically involved locoregional lymph nodes, diagnosed on histopathology. In six patients, these nodes demonstrated increased FDG uptake on PET. In seven patients, PET/CT did not diagnose the positive lymph nodes. PET/CT was false positive in one patient. Results and limitations: For the diagnosis of node-positive disease, the accuracy, the sensitivity, and the specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 84%, 46%, and 97%, respectively. When analysing the results of CT alone, there was accuracy of 80%, sensitivity of 46%, and specificity of 92%. The use of FDG-PET/CT is hampered by technical limitations. Conclusions: We found no advantage for combined FDG-PET/CT over CT alone for lymph node staging of invasive bladder cancer or recurrent high-risk superficial disease. © 2009 European Association of Urology.

Van De Wiele C.,Ghent University | Kruse V.,Ghent University | Smeets P.,Ghent University | Sathekge M.,University of Pretoria | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2013

Data available in patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, lung carcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma and gynaecological malignancies suggest that metabolic tumour volume and to a lesser extent total lesion glycolysis have the potential to become valuable in the imaging of human solid tumours as prognostic biomarkers for short- to intermediate-term survival outcomes, adding value to clinical staging, for assessment of response to treatment with neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy, and for treatment optimization; for example, based on early treatment response assessment using changes in metabolic tumour volume over time, it might be possible to select patients who require a more aggressive treatment to improve their outcome. Prospective studies enrolling consecutive patients, adopting standardized protocols for FDG PET acquisition and processing, adjusting for potential confounders in the analysis (tumour size and origin) and determining the optimal methodology for determination of these novel markers are mandatory. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Brusselle G.G.,Ghent University | VanderStichele C.,Ghent University | Jordens P.,OLV Ziekenhuis | Deman R.,AZ Groeninge | And 14 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2013

Background: Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases may benefit from macrolides. Methods: We performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in subjects with exacerbationprone severe asthma. Subjects received low-dose azithromycin (n=55) or placebo (n=54) as add-on treatment to combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists for 6 months. The primary outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI requiring treatment with antibiotics during the 26-week treatment phase. Secondary efficacy outcomes included lung function and scores on the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Results: The rate of primary endpoints (PEPs) during 6 months was not significantly different between the two treatment groups: 0.75 PEPs (95% CI 0.55 to 1.01) per subject in the azithromycin group versus 0.81 PEPs (95% CI 0.61 to 1.09) in the placebo group (p=0.682). In a predefined subgroup analysis according to the inflammatory phenotype, azithromycin was associated with a significantly lower PEP rate than placebo in subjects with noneosinophilic severe asthma (blood eosinophilia ≤200/ml): 0.44 PEPs (95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) versus 1.03 PEPs (95% CI 0.72 to 1.48) (p=0.013). Azithromycin significantly improved the AQLQ score but there were no significant between-group differences in the ACQ score or lung function. Azithromycin was well tolerated, but was associated with increased oropharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci. Conclusions Azithromycin did not reduce the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI in patients with severe asthma. However, the significant reduction in the PEP rate in azithromycin-treated patients with non-eosinophilic severe asthma warrants further study. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00760838.

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