Lopez-Jimenez F.,AZ Electronic
Mayo Clinic proceedings | Year: 2014
The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Task Force on Practice Guidelines has recently released the new cholesterol treatment guideline. This update was based on a systematic review of the evidence and replaces the previous guidelines from 2002 that were widely accepted and implemented in clinical practice. The new cholesterol treatment guideline emphasizes matching the intensity of statin treatment to the level of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and replaces the old paradigm of pursuing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The new guideline also emphasizes the primacy of the evidence base for statin therapy for ASCVD risk reduction and lists several patient groups that will not benefit from statin treatment despite their high cardiovascular risk, such as those with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II-IV) and patients undergoing hemodialysis. The guideline has been received with mixed reviews and significant controversy. Because of the evidence-based nature of the guideline, there is room for several questions and uncertainties on when and how to use lipid-lowering therapy in clinical practice. The goal of the Mayo Clinic Task Force in the assessment, interpretation, and expansion of the ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline is to address gaps in information and some of the controversial aspects of the newly released cholesterol management guideline using additional sources of evidence and expert opinion as needed to guide clinicians on key aspects of ASCVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dimiev A.M.,Rice University |
Dimiev A.M.,AZ Electronic |
Tour J.M.,Rice University
ACS Nano | Year: 2014
Despite intensive research, the mechanism of graphene oxide (GO) formation remains unclear. The role of interfacial interactions between solid graphite and the liquid reaction medium, and transport of the oxidizing agent into the graphite, has not been well-addressed. In this work, we show that formation of GO from graphite constitutes three distinct independent steps. The reaction can be stopped at each step, and the corresponding intermediate products can be isolated, characterized, and stored under appropriate conditions. The first step is conversion of graphite into a stage-1 graphite intercalation compound (GIC). The second step is conversion of the stage-1 GIC into oxidized graphite, which we define as pristine graphite oxide (PGO). This step involves diffusion of the oxidizing agent into the preoccupied graphite galleries. This rate-determining step makes the entire process diffusive-controlled. The third step is conversion of PGO into conventional GO after exposure to water, which involves hydrolysis of covalent sulfates and loss of all interlayer registry. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Kullo I.J.,AZ Electronic
Mayo Clinic proceedings | Year: 2014
The recently published American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment provide equations to estimate the 10-year and lifetime atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in African Americans and non-Hispanic whites, include stroke as an adverse cardiovascular outcome, and emphasize shared decision making. The guidelines provide a valuable framework that can be adapted on the basis of clinical judgment and individual/institutional expertise. In this review, we provide a perspective on the new guidelines, highlighting what is new, what is controversial, and potential adaptations. We recommend obtaining family history of ASCVD at the time of estimating ASCVD risk and consideration of imaging to assess subclinical disease burden in patients at intermediate risk. In addition to the adjuncts for ASCVD risk estimation recommended in the guidelines, measures that may be useful in refining risk estimates include carotid ultrasonography, aortic pulse wave velocity, and serum lipoprotein(a) levels. Finally, we stress the need for research efforts to improve assessment of ASCVD risk given the suboptimal performance of available risk algorithms and suggest potential future directions in this regard. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AZ Electronic | Date: 2014-02-19
The present invention provides a composition for forming a bottom anti-reflective coating, and also provides a photoresist pattern formation method employing that composition. The composition gives a bottom anti-reflective coating used in a lithographic process for manufacturing semiconductor devices, and the coating can be developed with a developing solution for photoresist. The composition contains a solvent, a polymer having a condensed polycyclic aromatic group, and a compound having a maleimide derivative or a maleic anhydride derivative. The composition may further contain a photo acid generator or a crosslinking agent.
AZ Electronic | Date: 2014-04-29
The present invention relates to a novel absorbing antireflective coating composition comprising a novel crosslinkable polymer comprising at least one repeat unit (A) having structure (1), at least repeat (B) unit having a structure (2), and at least one repeat unit (C) having structure (3) where D is a direct valence bound or C(R