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Vijayabaskar P.,Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Autonomous | Somasundaram S.T.,Annamalai University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate the potent and specific anticoagulant activity of molluscan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from whole clam tissue Donax cuneatus (D. cuneatus). Methods: Purification of few milligram quantities of GAGs from this tissue sample permitted a thorough examination of its anticoagulant activity characterization, which was partially purified by fractionation by anion exchange chromatography using DEAE cellulose column. The isolated crude and partially purified fractionated sample was showing metachromatic shift while using azure-A. The sample also exhibited prominent of biological and anti-fXa anticoagulant activity assays. Mobility was analyzed by two different buffer systems using agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The fractionated molluscan GAG was also found to have similar peaks as that of standard heparin when assessed by the FT-IR spectrum. Finally molecular weight was determined by the gradient PAGE for crude and fractionated-II GAG, which were found to be 65 000 Da and 50 000 Da, respectively. Conclusions: The bivalve GAG was subjected to fractionation for further purification and its chemical components were analyzed. The fractionated clam heparin also showed substantial in vitro anticoagulant activity than that of commercial heparins. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Kannan N.,Center for Research and Post Graduate studies in Chemistry | Veemaraj T.,Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Autonomous
Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Batch adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies for the removal of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution using indigenously prepared Eucalyptus globules bark carbon (EGBC), Bambusa glaucescens dust carbon (BGDC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) have been carried out under various experimental conditions at 30 +1°C. Percentage removal of cadmium (II) ions increased with the decrease in initial concentration and increased with increase in contact time and dose of adsorbent. Amount of cadmium (II) ions adsorbed increases with the decrease in particle size of EGBC. Adsorption is highly pH sensitive. Adsorption data were modeled with isotherms and the first order kinetic equations. Kinetics of adsorption is observed to be first order with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Removal of cadmium (II) ions by indigenously prepared activated carbons (IPACs) is found to be favourable and hence IPACs could be employed as an alternative adsorbent to commercial activated carbon (CAC) for effluent treatment, especially for the removal of cadmium (II) ions.


Rajagopal T.,Bharathidasan University | Rajagopal T.,Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Autonomous | Archunan G.,Bharathidasan University | Sekar M.,Arignar Anna Zoological Park
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2011

This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density). This study also elucidated whether zoo visitor density could disturb nonhuman animal welfare. This study analyzed fecal cortisol from the samples of blackbuck by radioimmunoassay and found significant differences (p < .05) for time the animals devoted to moving, resting, aggressive, reproductive, and social behavior on days with high and extremely high levels of zoo visitors. The ANOVA with Duncan's Multiple Range Test test showed that the fecal cortisol concentration was higher (p < .05) during the extremely high (137.30 ± 5.88 ng/g dry feces) and high (113.51 ± 3.70 ng/g dry feces) levels of zoo visitor density. The results of the study suggest that zoo visitor density affected behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Indian Blackbuck, and this may indicate an animal welfare problem. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Rajagopal T.,Bharathidasan University | Thangamani A.,Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Autonomous | Archunan G.,Bharathidasan University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Investigations were carried out on the divemity of phytoplankton in relation to physico-chemical parametem with respect to pollution status of two perennialponds of Sattur area, Tamil Nadu. Fifty species were identified belonging to Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae. High value of physico-chemical parameters and low phytoplankton diversity were recorded in the Chinnapperkovil pond, whereas low value of physico-chemical parameters and high phytoplankton diversity were recorded in the Nallanchettipatti pond. Class Chlorophyceae qualitatively and quantitatively dominated in both the habitats when compared to other taxa. Present study revealed that phytoplankton species richness (R1 and R2) was comparatively higher (R1:5.43±0.53; R2:3.00±0.27) in Nallancheettipatii pond. The species diversity was high (H':3.08±0.37; N1:14.05±0.63; N2:12.55±0.94) in Nallanchettipatti pond compared to Chinnapperkovil pond (H':2.25±0.15;N1:12.59±0.80;N2:8.54±0.61). Anabaena aequalis, Nitzschia bilobata, Navicula membranacea, Scenedesmus annatus, Pediastrum leonensis, Frvstulia rhomboides, Microcystis aeruginosa, Oscillatoria angusta, Closterium acerosum species dominated in Chinnapperkovil pond and Spirogyra maxima, Zygnema caeruteum and Fragilaria oceanica dominated in Nallanchettipatti pond. Abundance of such specific taxa (e.g. Closterium acerosum, C. dianae, C. lineatum, Anabaena aequalis, Oscillatoria angusta and Navicula membranacea) in the Chinnapperkovil and Nallanchettipatti (e. g. Merismopedia glauca and Fragilaria oceanica) ponds suggests that these taxa can be considered as pollution indicators. Phytoplankton species diversity and physico-chemical parameter profiles indicate the Chinnapperkovil pond to be meso-eutrophic whereas the Nallanchettipatti pond is oligo-eutrophic. ©Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Archunan G.,Bharathidasan University | Rajagopal T.,Bharathidasan University | Rajagopal T.,Ayya Nadar Janaki Ammal College Autonomous
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2013

The determination of the reproductive status is one of the most important factors for effective wild life conservation and management, and effective use of assisted reproductive techniques like artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer depends on the knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology. In this context the reproductive status of female blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra L.) was assessed by behaviour and determination, sex steroid hormones in faeces and urinary volatile compounds. The male and female blackbucks exhibited as many as 31 different reproductive/courtship behaviour patterns. Particularly, the males showed a more extensive repertoire: i.e. 23 behavioural patterns by territorial males, 11 by bachelor males and 4 by females. The behaviours such as, mounting, Flehmen, clockwise and anticlockwise movements were significantly higher in male blackbuck when exposed to estrus. By contrast, such courtship behaviours were completely absent in male when exposed to diestrus. It clearly indicates that, the estrus female produces specific chemical cues (pheromone) through urine, which would involve in attracting the conspecifics. In addition, the average faecal oestrogen concentration was significantly higher (p<. 0.05) during the estrus faecal than the proestrus and diestrus periods. In contrast, the faecal progesterone concentration was significantly higher (p<. 0.05) during the diestrus faecal sample than that of proestrus and estrus faecal sample. Twenty-eight volatiles are identified, across the three reproductive phases (i.e. proestrus, estrus and diestrus) of sexually mature and prepubertal females. Amongst, the compounds 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol, 3,7-dimethylnonane, 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ol and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid occurred only during estrus which may be considered as marker for detection of estrus which would ultimately help for artificial insemination in captive condition. The findings of the present study suggest that the non-invasive approaches like reproductive behaviours, faecal steroids and estrus-specific urinary volatiles could serve as good indicators for detection of estrus for blackbuck. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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