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Azam A.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | Azam A.,University of Peshawar | Khan I.,University of Peshawar | Mahmood A.,Barani Agriculture Research Institution BARI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Future concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very important due to its apparent economic and environmental impact in terms of climate change. However, a compressive assessment of its effect on the nutritional and chemical characteristics of food crops has yet to be established. In the present study the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of three root vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T-1-111), radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino) and turnip (Brassica rapa L. cv. Grabe) has been investigated. RESULTS: The yield of carrot, radish and turnip increased by 69, 139 and 72%, respectively, when grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Among the proximate composition, protein, vitamin C and fat contents decreased significantly for all the vegetables while sugar and fibre contents were increased. Response of the vegetables to elevated CO2, in terms of elemental composition, was different with a significant decrease in many important minerals. Elevated CO2 decreased the amount of majority of the fatty acids and amino acids in these vegetables. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that elevated CO2 increased the yield of root vegetables but many important nutritional parameters including protein, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids were decreased. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Ali F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali F.,Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine PINUM | Ahsan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saeed N.A.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2014

Two experiments were conducted to develop an efficient maize regeneration system using mature and immature embryos of four maize elite lines (Agaiti-85, Golden, Soneri and Sultan). The comparative studies revealed that all maize lines were responsive to callus and plant regeneration from mature and immature embryos. The culture medium Chu's N6 was used in both experiments. Immature embryos efficiently produced callus and regenerated plants therefore, when cultured on medium supplemented with 2,4-D, kinetin, 6-BAP and IBA at concentrations of 2 mL L-1, 0.2, 0.2 and 0.3 g L-1, respectively. However, callus-to-plant regeneration system for mature embryos required these growth regulators at higher concentrations (5 mL L-1, 0.4 g L-1, 0.5 g L-1 and 0.6 g L-1, respectively). The regeneration frequencies ranged from 40 to 75% using immature embryos, compared to 55 to 80% from immature embryos of all elite lines of maize under study. © 2014 Friends Science Publishers. Source


Khan I.,University of Peshawar | Azam A.,University of Peshawar | Mahmood A.,Barani Agriculture Research Institution BARI | Mahmood A.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute AARI
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO2 in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol-1) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol-1) concentration of CO2 under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO2 conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO 2 was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO2 on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO2 enriched atmosphere. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Ijaz S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sadaqat H.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan M.N.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute AARI
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2013

Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is the most prevalent and important disease of crop plants such as sunflower. Although it is monotypic and no physiological races have been reported, it has high genetic variability resulting in a wide host range, which in turn means that crop rotation is not an effective strategy to combat the disease. The current paper reviews the adverse effects of this disease and summarizes the present state of knowledge about charcoal rot severity and its impact on crop production. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source


Riaz A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Younis A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Taj A.R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Karim A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Drought is an important abiotic stress that limits the plant growth and productivity. A pot experiment was conducted by using complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications (each replication contained three plants) to evaluate morphological and physiological attributes that can be used for characterization of drought tolerance in 2 varieties of Marigold (Super Giant & Inca F1). Four drought levels at 100% (control), 80%, 70% and 60% field capacity were maintained throughout the experiment. Morphological characteristics including plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf firing percentage, leaf area, plant quality, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root-shoot ratio for fresh and dry weights were studied. Physiological parameters studied, were net CO2 assimilation rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), sub-stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, water use efficiency Pn/E and chlorophyll content. Results showed that, overall plant quality of varieties decreased with the progression of drought stress where 70% F.C can be considered appropriate for acceptable plant quality, whereas Inca F1 performed better compared to Super Giant for all attributes studied. Source

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