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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Memon N.,Sindh Agriculture University | Qasim M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sharif N.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences

An efficient tissue culture protocol was developed to regenerate the cormels of commercially grown varieties of Gladiolus. Callus was initiated in the cultures after three to five weeks from middle and bottom slices of the cormels in White Friendship and Peter pears. The maximum mean callus induction of 72.50% was observed on MS medium supplemented with NAA at 4 mg L-1 while best proliferation (0.80 g) was recorded on basal MS medium supplemented with NAA at 0.5 mg L-1. On the basis of cormel slices, best results were observed from bottom slice of the cormel producing 0.506 g of fresh callus growth in variety White Friendhsip. The efficient shoot regeneration from proliferated calli was observed increased in the presence of BAP from 2 to 4 mg L-1 and exhibited the highest mean percentage of shoot regeneration (92.92%) and number of shoots (18.25). Middle slice of the cormel had more potential for mean shoot induction (70.95%) while more number of shoots (12.98) was observed from bottom slice of the cormel in variety Peter Pears. Root formation was reduced on 7% sucrose as compared to 3-5% sucrose supplemented with IBA. The in vitro propagules initiated the development of cormels producing the highest mean number of cormels (12.06) on MS medium supplemented with 5% sucrose plus IBA (1 mg L-1). Middle and Bottom slice of the cormels exhibited statistically similar and more potential results for cormel induction and number of cormels. Source

Hannan A.,Directorate of Land Reclamation | Ahmad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Niaz A.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute | Ali L.,Adaptive Research Center | Waheed T.,Engro Fertilizer Ltd
Soil and Environment

Tube well water quality is the major contributing factor towards the low yield of crops in Pakistan, as it is not fit for irrigation in most of the areas. This is a survey study in which100 water samples collected from farmer's tube wells were evaluated for their quality characteristics. The data depicted the average values of ECiw, SARiw and RSCiw corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.67 dS m-1, 12.2 ± 65.00 (mmol L-1)0.5 and 3.6±1.96 mmol L-1, respectively. The range values noted for different water quality indications were 0.78 ≥ ECiw < 3.12 dS m-1, 2.57 ≥ SARiw ≥ 23.98 (mmole L-1)0.5 and 0.10 ≥ RSCiw < 7.10 mmole L-1. Within the conventional water quality indicators a significant correlation was found between SARiw and ECiw (r=0.84**) showing that SARiw is a function of total salinity in irrigation water. However, RSCiw and ECiw were not significantly correlated (r=0.32). The significant correlation coefficients showed an increase in SAR and EC of soil with the use of irrigation water of high ECiw and SAR. The wheat yield harvested from the fields irrigated with tube well water was found to be more affected by the sodicity compared with salinity of water, each having corresponding values of 2.08 ≥ SAR < 22.38 (mmole-1)0.5 and 1.03 ≥ ECe ≤ 4.31dS m-1. A statistically justified model (R2=0.934) Y = 8317[ECe]0.177[ECiw]0.883 / [SARiw]0.396[SARs]0.416 [RSCiw]0.382 was developed to predict wheat yield trend under a given set of soil and water characteristics. It was concluded that subsoil water of the region is of poor quality and should not be exploited by the farmers through private tube wells. Its injudicious use would salinize or sodicate the soils. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source

Amjad M.,Institute of Horticultural science | Afzal I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmed T.,Institute of Horticultural science | Iqbal Q.,Institute of Horticultural science | Iqbal J.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences

The study was carried out to investigate the effects of hormonal priming on germination and seedling growth of tomato seeds. Priming was done by exposing seeds of two tomato cultivars 'Nagina' and 'Pakit' to aerated solutions of (Cytokinins) 10, 50 and 100 ppm BAP and kinetin for 24 h. The performance of primed and non primed seeds was evaluated during germination and emergence tests under controlled conditions by using completely randomized design with three replications. Seed priming with 10 ppm kinetin increased final germination percentage, germination index, shoot length and seedling fresh weight of both tomato cultivars as compared to all other presowing seed treatments including control. Seeds of both tomato cultivars primed with 10 ppm kinetin for 24 h significantly reduced the time taken to 50% emergence and mean emergence, increased final seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Results indicated that cytokinins priming with varying concentrations of BAP and kinetin improved germination potential and seedling establishment of both cultivars. Maximum improvement was recorded in seeds primed with 10 ppm kinetin. The better performance of primed seeds may be due to lower electrical conductivity (EC) of seed leachates. Source

Rehman A.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute | Sajjad M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khan S.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Pena R.J.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Khan N.I.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute
Cereal Research Communications

The allelic variation for Glu-1, Glu-3 loci and presence of IBL-1RS translocation was determined in 126 spring wheat accessions. The most common alleles at Glu-1 loci were Glu-A1b (59.52%), Glu-B1c (41.26%), and Glu-D1d (57.14%) and at Glu-3 loci were Glu-A3c (56.45%), Glu-B3j (29.36%), and Glu-D3b (76.98%). Modern Pakistani wheat varieties carried superior alleles at Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci for bread-making quality and had no negative influence of secalin protein-synthesized by 1BL-1RS translocation. For LMW-GS, the most common combination was Glu-A3c, Glu-B3j and Glu-D3b. The loci Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 had the highest allelic diversity of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. Source

Bibi A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sadaqat H.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Tahir M.H.N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akram H.M.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences

Twenty different accessions of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor var Moench) were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at seedling stage. Water stress was simulated by non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 6000. After fourteen days data were recorded for easily measurable seedling traits as shoot length, root length, fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight, fresh root weight and dry root weight under control as well as water stress conditions. Significant differences were observed among the accessions, treatments and their interactions for evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. Differential sensitivity of seedling traits was noted due to water stress created by PEG. However, shoot related traits were the most sensitive against the water stress. Proportional contribution of RL, SL, FSW, DSW, FRW and DRW was 56.6%, 20.2 %, 10.5%, 8.5%, 3.5% and 0.7% to drought stress as measured by Principle component analysis. Root length (56.6%) was the highest towards drought tolerance, indicating root length was least effected by water stress among all the seedling traits. The most promising drought tolerant accessions (80353, 80365, 80199, 80204 and 80319) were screened through multivariate scoring index. Source

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