Faisalābād, Pakistan
Faisalābād, Pakistan

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Khan M.B.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Rafiq R.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Hussain M.,Dankook University | Farooq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Adequate and balanced supply of essential nutrients, promising cultivars and improved planting methods are prime important to realize the maximum potential of different maize hybrids. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of different planting methods on rooting system, crop growth, phosphorus (P) uptake and yield of different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Three maize hybrids viz. 6621 (H 1), 919 (H 2) and KS-64 (H 3) were planted in flat sowing (P 1 = 75 cm spaced rows), ridge sowing (P 2 = 75 cm spaced ridges) and bed sowing (P 3 = 120-30 cm apart beds). Better root growth, P uptake, agronomic and yield related traits were observed in ridge sowing followed by bed sowing; although there was non-significant effect of sowing methods on plant population, cob length and harvest index. Amongst the hybrids tested, hybrid 919 showed better performance for most of the parameters studied; although there was no difference among the hybrids for plant population, plant height, number of rows per cob and harvest index. Interactive effect of planting methods and different maize hybrids was also significant for most of the traits studied except plant population, number of rows per cob and harvest index. Maize hybrid 919 when sown on ridges showed maximum root and crop growth, P uptake and yield than rest of the combinations. Strong correlation of lateral roots was observed with grain size, grain yield and grain P contents. To conclude, root growth better ensured the P uptake and use efficiency which resulted in better crop growth and yield while maize hybrid 919 grown on ridges efficiently utilized P and exhibited higher grain yield.


Razzaq A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Cheema Z.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2012

Water extracts from allelopathic crops possess the potential to control weeds effectively, especially when used in combination with reduced rates of herbicides. Label doses of different herbicides and their seventy percent reduced doses, were combined with 18 l/ha each of allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts (WE). This combination was sprayed 30 days after sowing (DAS) for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Maximum reduction in total weed density and dry weight over the control, was recorded in a field sprayed with mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG) at 14.4 g active substance (a.s.)/ha. However, sorghum + sunflower WE each at 18 l/ha combined with doses which had been reduced by 70% of mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 12 EC at 36 g a.s./ha), or metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) or mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG at 4.32 g a.s./ha), reduced total weed dry weight by more than 90%, over the control. Sorghum and sunflower water extracts each at 18 l/ha combined with metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) produced a maximum number of productive tillers, spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, biological yield and grain yield. Moreover, this treatment was the most economical along with having the maximum net benefits. The results suggested that weeds can be controlled in wheat, for a higher yield, when a 70% reduced herbicide dose is used in combination with allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts.


Qureshi M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Ahmad Z.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Akhtar N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Iqbal A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediate the soil processes such as decomposition, nutrient mobilization, mineralization, solubilization, nitrogen fixation and growth hormone production. Microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble phosphates into soluble forms through the production of organic acids. Inoculation of seed with P-solubilizing microorganisms is a promising technique which may alleviate the deficiency of phosphorus. This bioavailability of soil inorganic phosphorus in the rhizosphere varies considerably with plant species and nutritional status of soil. A field experiment was conducted at Fiber Crops Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad to assess the ability of P-solubilizing rhizobacteria to enhance the growth and yield of cotton. Isolation and screening of P-solubilizer on Pikovskaya's medium was carried out at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad. The trial was conducted on clay loam soil with pH 8.3, EC 2.8 dSm-1, N 0.040 %, organic matter 0.75% and available P 10.3 mg kg-1 with three fertilizer levels viz. 120-30, 120-60, 120-90 kg NP ha-1 with and without P-solubilizer (Bacillus sp.) inoculum. Results revealed that bacterial inoculum produced significantly higher seed cotton yield 1630 as compared to 1511 kg ha-1. The highest seed cotton yield was observed at highest fertilizer level i.e. 1733 kg ha-1 with inoculum. The physical parameters like plant height, number of bolls per plant and boll weight and soil available P determined at regular intervals (30, 60, 90, days after sowing) was also found higher in the inoculated treatments. More exploration of this area of research should be carried out in different ecologies to compensate the mineral fertilizers.


Iqbal A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sadia B.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan A.I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Awan F.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2010

Sorghum ranks fifth in worldwide economic importance among cereal crops and is one of the most important summer annual grasses of Pakistan. As it is a very diverse crop, sorghum genetic fingerprinting requires an efficient marker system. We estimated genetic divergence among 29 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes, including approved varieties and local and exotic lines collected from different ecological regions of Pakistan, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 125 RAPD loci, with an average of 66 loci per genotype, were used to calculate genetic divergence among these genotypes, of which 119 were polymorphic, showing 95% overall polymorphism. Genetic similarity ranged from 0.36 to 0.92, indicating a relatively broad genetic base. RAPD analysis revealed maximum similarity between the Indian III and K-A-113 sorghum genotypes (both exotic lines), while the F-601 and F-606 were observed to be the most diverse genotypes. Mean band frequency revealed by these RAPD primers ranged from 0.17 to 0.56, with an average of 0.36. The data presented here support the findings that RAPDs can be effectively used for studying genetic diversity in sorghum. © FUNPEC-RP.


Shakir M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Bano A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria were screened for ACC-deaminase activity and their potential to confer drought tolerance in wheat crop. Results of laboratory study revealed that selected rhizobacteria lowered endogenous ethylene levels in the rhizosphere as measured by Gas Chromatograph. Axenic studies showed that inoculation increased root-shoot length, root-shoot mass and lateral root number of the inoculated plants by 141, 44, 196, 52 and 30%, respectively, over control. Better-developed roots because of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) helped plants, a better crop stand that enhanced moisture and nutrient feeding volume resulting-in improved growth and yields of wheat crop. Two-year multi-location field trials inferred optimum yields with low delta water in semi-arid climate by PGPR containing ACC-deaminase. The enzyme ACC-deaminase probably lowered harmful ethylene levels which partially eliminated drought stress consequently utilizing soil moisture from lower profiles through proliferated roots. © 2011, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.


Cheema M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saleem M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Muhammad N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Wahid M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Baber B.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Canola crop is substituting the indigenous rape and mustard crops due to its high quality edible oil and to its ability to grow well on rain and canal irrigated areas. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for growth and development. A two-years field study (Nov. 2001-April 2003) was carried out to determine optimum N level and stage of its application for canola crop under irrigated conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Five N levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) were maintained at different times i.e., full N at sowing, 1/2 N at sowing +1/2 N at branching, 1/2 N at sowing + 1/2 N at flowering and 1/2 N at branching + 1/2 N at flowering. The total dry matter (TDM), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area duration (LAD), seed yield, oil yield and protein content were significantly affected by different nitrogen rates. The highest N level (120 kg ha-1) produced maximum values for all these traits as compared to minimum in control during both years of study. Time of nitrogen application did not significantly affect TDM, CGR, protein and oil contents however, split application of nitrogen (1/2 at sowing + 1/2 at branching or flowering) produced significantly higher seed and oil yield than full nitrogen at sowing or its split application as 1/2 at branching + 1/2 at flowering.


Bibi A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sadaqat H.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Akram H.M.,Ayub agricultural research Institute | Mohammed M.I.,PO Box 30
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

Seed of eighty accessions collected from the National Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan were subjected to drought stress for ten days in greenhouse. Leaf stomatal conductance, osmotic potential, water potential, turgor pressure, shoot length and root length were measured to select physiological markers for drought tolerance and evaluate the potential of different sorghum accessions for drought tolerance. The accessions differed significantly in all physiological parameters. In most accessions, reductions were observed under water stress for all traits. In contrast, significant increases in measurements of root length were also observed under water stress conditions in some accessions. Among proportional contribution of osmotic potential, water potential, turgor pressure, root length, shoot length and stomatal conductance towards drought tolerance: the osmotic potential was the highest contributing among all parameters for drought tolerance. So, it might be used as selection trait for drought tolerance. Among 80 sorghum accessions, only five accessions (80265, 80114, SS-95-4, SS-97-7 & 80377) were most water stress tolerant. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.


Akram H.M.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Ali A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Sattar A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Rehman H.S.U.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Bibi A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Scarcity of water for irrigation is an alarming issue limiting crop production worldwide and is becoming increasingly severe with the passage of time in Pakistan. Rice production in Pakistan is thus, being adversely hampered by the shortage of water. The study was therefore, contemplated to determine the effect of drought stress on some physiological and agronomic parameters of three rice cultivars naming Basmati-Super, Shaheen-Basmati and Basmati-385. The field experiment was laid out in split plot design with randomized complete block arrangement, keeping cultivars in main and water stress stages viz; panicle initiation, anthesis and grain filling along with control in sub-plots. Cultivar Shaheen-Basmati exhibited comparatively more tolerance to drought stress at all the three growth stages under study with less reduction in various physiological and agronomic traits. Similarly, less increase in transpiration rate and sterile tillers per hill were observed in Shaheen-Basmati under drought stress at all the three stages. Growth stage panicle initiation was the most sensitive one exhibiting more adverse effects on all the physiological and agronomic parameters under study., PAR, photosynthetic rate, RWC and stomatal conductance showed strong and positive correlation with WUE whereas; transpiration rate expressed negative correlation with WUE. Similarly, all the physiological and yield components under study except transpiration rate and number of sterile grains per panicle had a strong and positive correlation with paddy yield.


Shahid M.T.H.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Khan F.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saeed A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Fareed I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2011

Sugarcane breeding under climatic conditions of Pakistan is very difficult due to unavailability of viable fuzz (seed). Somaclonal variation can provide an alternative for improvement of existing genotypes. Six hundred and twenty-seven somaclones were developed from sugarcane genotype S97US297, and protocols for callogenesis and organogenesis were developed using Murashige and Skoog medium. Two types of explants, leaf and pith, and two auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, were tested to optimize callogenesis for root establishment. Leaves as explants with 3.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid gave the best results, both for callus induction and proliferation. Half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 1.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting. Red rot-resistant somaclones of the R2 generation along with the parent were assessed for genetic variability at the molecular level using RAPD and SSR markers. Polymorphism based on RAPD and SSR was 32 and 67%, respectively. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.06-0.45 for RAPD and 0.06-0.47 for SSR. We conclude that somaclonal variation of sugarcane varieties is sufficient to allow selection. ©FUNPEC-RP.


Akhtar N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Arshad I.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Shakir M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Qureshi M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Intensive cropping has resulted-in wide spread deficiency of nutrients in most of the soils and situation is becoming more serious because of a increase in the use of high priced chemical fertilizers and their negative influence on the environment. Exploitation of biological intervention mainly phosphate solublizing bacteria (PSB) has attracted great attention, as they have enormous potential in providing soil phosphorus for plant growth, by increasing the availability of accumulated phosphate through solubilization. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Rhizobium and Bacillus, alone and in combination on the yield parameters of wheat. Uniform dose of N and K (160 and 60 kg ha-1), while two levels of P (57 and 114 kg ha-1) were applied as Urea, SOP and SSP, respectively. Bacillus and Rhizobium were applied as seed coating to wheat (Var. Sehar 2006).Results revealed that number of tillers (370.3 m-2), spike length (13.50 cm), number of grains (46 spike-1), grain yield (6171 kg ha-1), biomass (17.00 t ha-1), grain protein (11.84%) and 1000 grain weight (62 g) were higher in co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus. It was also recorded that co- inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus improved the grain yield up to 17.5% as compared to control. In single inoculation Bacillus gave better result and showed an increase of 7.7% in grain yield. Phosphorus uptake by grains (25.29 kg ha-1) was maximized by co-inoculation followed by Bacillus inoculation. Available phosphorus in post harvest sample of soil was recorded (16.27 mg kg-1) which was significantly higher than all other treatments. Results clearly demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus sp enhanced the availability of phosphorus and exert positive effect on the growth and yield of crop.

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