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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Iqbal A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Sadia B.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan A.I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Awan F.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2010

Sorghum ranks fifth in worldwide economic importance among cereal crops and is one of the most important summer annual grasses of Pakistan. As it is a very diverse crop, sorghum genetic fingerprinting requires an efficient marker system. We estimated genetic divergence among 29 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes, including approved varieties and local and exotic lines collected from different ecological regions of Pakistan, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 125 RAPD loci, with an average of 66 loci per genotype, were used to calculate genetic divergence among these genotypes, of which 119 were polymorphic, showing 95% overall polymorphism. Genetic similarity ranged from 0.36 to 0.92, indicating a relatively broad genetic base. RAPD analysis revealed maximum similarity between the Indian III and K-A-113 sorghum genotypes (both exotic lines), while the F-601 and F-606 were observed to be the most diverse genotypes. Mean band frequency revealed by these RAPD primers ranged from 0.17 to 0.56, with an average of 0.36. The data presented here support the findings that RAPDs can be effectively used for studying genetic diversity in sorghum. © FUNPEC-RP.

Shakir M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Bano A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria were screened for ACC-deaminase activity and their potential to confer drought tolerance in wheat crop. Results of laboratory study revealed that selected rhizobacteria lowered endogenous ethylene levels in the rhizosphere as measured by Gas Chromatograph. Axenic studies showed that inoculation increased root-shoot length, root-shoot mass and lateral root number of the inoculated plants by 141, 44, 196, 52 and 30%, respectively, over control. Better-developed roots because of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) helped plants, a better crop stand that enhanced moisture and nutrient feeding volume resulting-in improved growth and yields of wheat crop. Two-year multi-location field trials inferred optimum yields with low delta water in semi-arid climate by PGPR containing ACC-deaminase. The enzyme ACC-deaminase probably lowered harmful ethylene levels which partially eliminated drought stress consequently utilizing soil moisture from lower profiles through proliferated roots. © 2011, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Khan M.B.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Rafiq R.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Hussain M.,Dankook University | Farooq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Adequate and balanced supply of essential nutrients, promising cultivars and improved planting methods are prime important to realize the maximum potential of different maize hybrids. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of different planting methods on rooting system, crop growth, phosphorus (P) uptake and yield of different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Three maize hybrids viz. 6621 (H 1), 919 (H 2) and KS-64 (H 3) were planted in flat sowing (P 1 = 75 cm spaced rows), ridge sowing (P 2 = 75 cm spaced ridges) and bed sowing (P 3 = 120-30 cm apart beds). Better root growth, P uptake, agronomic and yield related traits were observed in ridge sowing followed by bed sowing; although there was non-significant effect of sowing methods on plant population, cob length and harvest index. Amongst the hybrids tested, hybrid 919 showed better performance for most of the parameters studied; although there was no difference among the hybrids for plant population, plant height, number of rows per cob and harvest index. Interactive effect of planting methods and different maize hybrids was also significant for most of the traits studied except plant population, number of rows per cob and harvest index. Maize hybrid 919 when sown on ridges showed maximum root and crop growth, P uptake and yield than rest of the combinations. Strong correlation of lateral roots was observed with grain size, grain yield and grain P contents. To conclude, root growth better ensured the P uptake and use efficiency which resulted in better crop growth and yield while maize hybrid 919 grown on ridges efficiently utilized P and exhibited higher grain yield.

Razzaq A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Cheema Z.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jabran K.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2012

Water extracts from allelopathic crops possess the potential to control weeds effectively, especially when used in combination with reduced rates of herbicides. Label doses of different herbicides and their seventy percent reduced doses, were combined with 18 l/ha each of allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts (WE). This combination was sprayed 30 days after sowing (DAS) for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Maximum reduction in total weed density and dry weight over the control, was recorded in a field sprayed with mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG) at 14.4 g active substance (a.s.)/ha. However, sorghum + sunflower WE each at 18 l/ha combined with doses which had been reduced by 70% of mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 12 EC at 36 g a.s./ha), or metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) or mesosulfuron + idosulfuron (Atlantis 3.6 WG at 4.32 g a.s./ha), reduced total weed dry weight by more than 90%, over the control. Sorghum and sunflower water extracts each at 18 l/ha combined with metribuzin + phenoxaprop (Bullet 38 SC at 57 g a.s./ha) produced a maximum number of productive tillers, spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, biological yield and grain yield. Moreover, this treatment was the most economical along with having the maximum net benefits. The results suggested that weeds can be controlled in wheat, for a higher yield, when a 70% reduced herbicide dose is used in combination with allelopathic sorghum and sunflower water extracts.

Cheema M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Saleem M.F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Muhammad N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Wahid M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Baber B.H.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Canola crop is substituting the indigenous rape and mustard crops due to its high quality edible oil and to its ability to grow well on rain and canal irrigated areas. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for growth and development. A two-years field study (Nov. 2001-April 2003) was carried out to determine optimum N level and stage of its application for canola crop under irrigated conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Five N levels (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) were maintained at different times i.e., full N at sowing, 1/2 N at sowing +1/2 N at branching, 1/2 N at sowing + 1/2 N at flowering and 1/2 N at branching + 1/2 N at flowering. The total dry matter (TDM), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area duration (LAD), seed yield, oil yield and protein content were significantly affected by different nitrogen rates. The highest N level (120 kg ha-1) produced maximum values for all these traits as compared to minimum in control during both years of study. Time of nitrogen application did not significantly affect TDM, CGR, protein and oil contents however, split application of nitrogen (1/2 at sowing + 1/2 at branching or flowering) produced significantly higher seed and oil yield than full nitrogen at sowing or its split application as 1/2 at branching + 1/2 at flowering.

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