Ayr Research Station

Ayr, Australia

Ayr Research Station

Ayr, Australia

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Akem C.,Ayr Research Station | MacManus G.,Ayr Research Station | Dann L.,Ecosciences Precinct | Coates L.,Ecosciences Precinct | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Anthracnose and stem end rots are the main postharvest diseases affecting mangoes in Australia and limiting the shelf life of fruits whenever they are not controlled. The management of these diseases has often relied on the use of fungicide applications either as field spray treatments, postharvest dips or both. Because of concerns with continuous fungicide use, other options for the sustainable management of these diseases are needed. Field trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of three plant activators for the control of these diseases over a 2-year period on 20-year old 'R2E2' mango trees in north Queensland. The activators evaluated were: Bion, Kasil and Mangocote. The efficacy of these activators was compared with that of a standard industry field spray program using a combination of fungicides, as well as to untreated controls. Conditions favoured good development of the target diseases in both years to be able to differentiate treatment effects. Kasil as a drench was as effective as the standard fungicide program on the management of anthracnose and stem end rots. Bion as foliar sprays showed similar efficacy with its effectiveness comparable with the standard spray program. Both activators had significantly less disease incidences when compared with the untreated control. The third activator, Mangocote was not vey effective in controlling the target diseases. Its effect was not significantly better than the untreated controls. The results from this 2-year study suggest that plant activators can play an effective role in mango postharvest disease management. Proper timing could reduce the number of fungicide sprays in an integrated disease management program enabling sustainable yields of quality fruits without the continuous concerns of health and environmental risks from continuous reliance on fungicide use. © ISHS 2013.


Akem C.N.,Ayr Research Station | MacManus G.,Ayr Research Station | Lakhesar D.,Ayr Research Station | Boccalatte P.,Ayr Research Station | Stockdale K.,Ayr Research Station
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The shelf life of mangoes is limited by two main postharvest diseases when not consistently managed. These are anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rots (SER) (Fusicoccum parvum). The management of these diseases has often relied mainly on the use of fungicides either as field spray treatments or as postharvest dips. These have done a fairly good job at serving the industry and allowing fruits to be transported, stored and sold at markets distant from the areas of production. There are however concerns on the continuous use of these fungicides as the main or only tool for the management of these diseases. This has necessitated a rethink of how these diseases could be sustainably managed into the future using a systems approach that focuses on integrated crop management. It is a holistic approach that considers all the crop protection management strategies including the genetics of the plant and its ability to naturally defend itself from infection with plant activators and growth regulators. It also considers other cultural or agronomic management tools such as the use of crop nutrition, timely application of irrigation water and the pruning of trees on a regular basis as a means of reducing inoculum levels in the orchards. The ultimate aim of this approach is to increase yields and obtain long term sustainable production. It is guided by the sustainable crop production principle which states that producers should apply as little inputs as possible but as much as needed. © ISHS 2013.


Akem C.,Ayr Research Station | MacManus G.,Ayr Research Station | Lakhesar D.,Ayr Research Station | Boccalatte P.,Ayr Research Station | Stockdale K.,Ayr Research Station
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The shelf-life of mangoes is limited by two main postharvest diseases when not consistently managed. These are anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rots (Neofusicoccum parvum). The management of these diseases has often relied mainly on the use of fungicide applications either as field spray treatments and/or postharvest dips. Current postharvest dips are under continuous threats because of health concerns and the maximum residue levels allowed on treated fruit continuous to be reviewed and re-assessed. Research needs to keep up with the rate at which changes are occurring following some of these reviews. The recent withdrawal of carbendazin (Spinflo), as a postharvest dip being used to manage stem end rots necessitated the urgent search for a replacement fungicide to manage this disease. A study was therefore undertaken to compare the efficacy of current and potential products that could be used to fill the gap. The following products were evaluated: Carbendazin (Spinflo), Prochloraz (Sportak), Thiobendazole (TBZ) and Fludioxonil (Scholar). These products were tested both under ambient temperatures and as hot dips to identify one that was most effective. Scholar® as a hot dip was the most effective product among the ones compared. It effectively controlled both anthracnose and stem end rots at highly significant levels when compared to the untreated control and even Spinflo which is being replaced. As a cold dip, it had some limited effect on anthracnose but had virtually no effect on stem end rots. Based on its performance in these experiments, the product has been recommended for rates and residue studies so that it can be registered as a hot dip for use in controlling postharvest diseases of mangoes. © ISHS 2013.

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