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Sidney, Canada

Dodder N.G.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Maruya K.A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Lee Ferguson P.,Duke University | Grace R.,Axys Analytical Services | And 5 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin

Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50. ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rudel R.A.,Silent Spring Institute | Gray J.M.,Breast Cancer Fund | Gray J.M.,Vassar College | Engel C.L.,Breast Cancer Fund | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are high-production-volume chemicals used in plastics and resins for food packaging. They have been associated with endocrine disruption in animals and in some human studies. Human exposure sources have been estimated, but the relative contribution of dietary exposure to total intake has not been studied empirically. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of food packaging to exposure, we measured urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites before, during, and after a "fresh foods" dietary intervention. Methods: We selected 20 participants in five families based on self-reported use of canned and packaged foods. Participants ate their usual diet, followed by 3 days of "fresh foods" that were not canned or packaged in plastic, and then returned to their usual diet. We collected evening urine samples over 8 days in January 2010 and composited them into preintervention, during intervention, and postintervention samples. We used mixed-effects models for repeated measures and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to assess change in urinary levels across time. Results: Urine levels of BPA and DEHP metabolites decreased significantly during the fresh foods intervention [e.g., BPA geometric mean (GM), 3.7 ng/mL preintervention vs. 1.2 ng/mL during intervention; mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy hexyl) phthalate GM, 57 ng/mL vs. 25 ng/mL]. The intervention reduced GM concentrations of BPA by 66% and DEHP metabolites by 53-56%. Maxima were reduced by 76% for BPA and 93-96% for DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: BPA and DEHP exposures were substantially reduced when participants' diets were restricted to food with limited packaging. Source

Simmons D.B.D.,Environment Canada | Benskin J.P.,Axys Analytical Services | Cosgrove J.R.,Axys Analytical Services | Duncker B.P.,University of Waterloo | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

There are multiple sources of biological and technical variation in a typical ecotoxicology study that may not be revealed by traditional endpoints but that become apparent in an omics dataset. As researchers increasingly apply omics technologies to environmental studies, it will be necessary to understand and control the main source(s) of variability to facilitate meaningful interpretation of such data. For instance, can variability in omics studies be addressed by changing the approach to study design and data analysis? Are there statistical methods that can be employed to correctly interpret omics data and make use of unattributed, inherent variability? The present study presents a review of experimental design and statistical considerations applicable to the use of omics methods in systems toxicology studies. In addition to highlighting potential sources that contribute to experimental variability, this review suggests strategies with which to reduce and/or control such variability so as to improve reliability, reproducibility, and ultimately the application of omics data for systems toxicology. © 2015 SETAC. Source

Long E.R.,Environmental Assessment Program | Dutch M.,Environmental Assessment Program | Weakland S.,Environmental Assessment Program | Chandramouli B.,Axys Analytical Services | Benskin J.P.,Axys Analytical Services
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Concentrations of 119 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine sediments measured throughout Puget Sound (n=10) and Bellingham Bay (n=30), Washington, USA, are reported. These data are among the first measurements of PPCPs and PFASs in marine sediments from the Pacific Northwest and provide a comparison to previous measurements of these chemicals in influent, effluent, and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants throughout the region. The concentrations of both PPCPs and PFASs in sediments from Puget Sound and Bellingham Bay ranged from very low to non-detectable for most compounds. Only 14 of the 119 PPCPs and 3 of 13 PFASs were quantifiable in sediments. Diphenhydramine (an antihistamine) was most frequently detected (87.5% of samples), with a maximum concentration of 4.81ng/g dry weight and an estimated mean detected concentration of 1.68ng/g. Triclocarban (an antibacterial) was detected in 35.0% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.6ng/g dry weight. Perfluoroalkyl substances were detected in 2.5% of analyses. Perfluorobutanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were detected in 7, 5, and 1 sample(s) each, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (1.5ng/g). Detected concentrations were often highest within the industrial harbor in Bellingham Bay and near the cities of Seattle and Bremerton. © 2013 SETAC. Source

Ferrey M.L.,Minnesota Pollution Control Agency | Heiskary S.,Minnesota Pollution Control Agency | Grace R.,Axys Analytical Services | Hamilton M.C.,Axys Analytical Services | Lueck A.,Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Water from 50 randomly selected lakes across Minnesota, USA, was analyzed for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and other commercial or industrial chemicals in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2012 National Lakes Assessment. Thirty-eight of the 125 chemicals analyzed were detected at least once, all at parts per trillion concentrations. The most widely detected was N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, present in 48% of the lakes sampled. Amitriptyline, a widely used antidepressant, was found in 28% of the lakes. The endocrine active chemicals bisphenol A, androstenedione, and nonylphenol were found in 42%, 30%, and 10% of the lakes, respectively. Cocaine was found in 32% of the lakes, and its degradation product, benzoylecgonine, was detected at 28% of the locations. Carbadox, an antibiotic used solely in the production of swine, was also present in 28% of the lakes sampled. The means by which these and other chemicals were transported to several of the remote lakes is unclear but may involve atmospheric transport. © 2015 SETAC. Source

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